The Role of SMEs in Economic Development; Case Study of Malaysia
Authors :- Mitra Madanchian, Norashikin Hussein, Fauziah Noordin and Hamed Taherdoost
Keywords :- Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Economic Development, Growth, and Leadership
Published Online :- 15 December 2015
View Full AbstractAs a source of employment, economic dynamism, competition and innovation The contribution of SME’s to the economic development of a country is significant. They are established in a wider geographical area than large companies, even in the rural areas. Therefore, they play a major role for improving income distribution. This article is an overview of Malaysia and the SMEs in the country and review importance of SMEs to growth and innovation of Malaysia.
View References Aman, O., M. N. H. Tahir, et al. (2011). “The success factors of food small medium entrepreneurs under the one district one industry programme: A case on food manufacturing entrepreneurs in Melaka.” Journal of Global Entrepreneurship 1(1): 44-64.
 Arham, A. F. (2014). The Relationship between Leadership Behaviour, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Organisational Performance in Malaysian Small and Medium Enterprises. School of Management, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University. PhD: 431.
 Ariff, M. and S. Y. Abubakar (2003). “Strengthening entrepreneurship in Malaysia.” Malaysian Institute of Economic Research, Kuala Lumpur: 1-22.
 Ariff, M. and A. M. Nassir (1998). Stock pricing in Malaysia: corporate financial & investment management, Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.
 Aris, N. M. (2007). “SMEs: Building blocks for economic growth.” Department of National Statistics,Malaysia.
 Athukorala, P. c. and J. Menon (1999). “Outward orientation and economic development in Malaysia.” The World Economy 22(8): 1119-1139.
 Chelliah, S., M. Sulaiman, et al. (2010). “Internationalization and performance: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia.” International Journal of Business and Management 5(6): p27.
 Economy, M. (2012). Altius Directory, viewed 10 Oct 2012.
 Hashim, J. (2007). “Information communication technology (ICT) adoption among SME owners in Malaysia.” International Journal of Business and Information 2(2): 221-240.
 Jamak, A. B. S. A., R. Salleh, et al. (2012). “Micro business enterprise of Bumiputera Malays,Malaysia.” African Journal of Business Management 6(22): 6504-6510.
 NSDC (2010). SME Annual Report 2009/2010: Transformation to the New Economic Model, . N. S. D. Council, Kuala Lumpur.
 NSDC (2015). SME Development Framework: The Malaysian Case. N. S. D. Council. Kuala Lumpur.
 Othman, N. B., M. B. Sulaiman, et al. (2008). “Entrepreneurial acculturation in Malaysia: Effort and achievements.”
 Panitchpakdi, S. (2006). Statements at the 10th Session of the Commission on Enterprise, Business Facilitation and Development, Geneva, 21 February 2006.
 Planning, E. (2015). “Eleventh Malaysia Plan 2016-2020 Anchoring Growth on People.” Malaysia: Prime Ministerâ Department.
 Saad, S. (2012). “Re-building the concept of nation building in Malaysia.” Asian Social Science 8(4):p115.
 Selvarajah, C. and D. Meyer (2008). “One nation, three cultures: exploring dimensions that relate to leadership in Malaysia.” Leadership & Organization Development Journal 29(8): 693-712.
 Simpson, R. A. (2005). Government intervention in the Malaysian economy, 1970-1990: Lessons for South Africa, University of the Western Cape.
 Thong, J. Y. L., C.-S. Yap, et al. (1996). “Top management support, external expertise and information systems implementation in small businesses.” Information systems research 7(2): 248-267.
A Study of the Impact of Clients’ Perceptions of Stimuli and Service Quality on Organizational Image of Mellat Bank in Isfahan
Authors :- Farzad Ghaffari, Nader Jafaryousefi, Abalfazl Jannati Mashkani
Keywords :- Stimuli, Bank Image, Bank Design, Service Quality, Mellat Bank.
Published Online :- 03 March 2016
View Full AbstractIn order to acquire a competitive advantage, companies and organizations should estabilsh a relevant image. Managers can determine the extent of how satisfactory an understanding can be by studying the factors affecting the image and they may remove possible bad perceptions among the clients. Thus, the present study aims to identify those factors which might influence clients perceptions. One prominent factor is the influential stimuli that affect consumptive behavior. This study explores the clients perception of stimuli and service quality over the organizational image of Mellat Bank in Isfahan. Research population comprises all clients of the bank in Isfahan, setting sample size at 173 cases by using Cochran formula. To collect data, a questionnaire was used with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.89 indicating its validity and reliability. Research results show that stimuli did have a significant relation with bank image. It also revealed a similar relation between service quality and image of Mellat bank of Isfahan. Further, the results of Friedman test indicated that, in clients perspectives, service quality of banks rates first in being influential over bank image while physical design rates as the last.
View References Atilgan. Edo et al. (2005) Determinates of the brand equity A Verification approach in the beverage industry in turkey Marketing Intelligence planning. vol. 23. N0.3, pp.-237-239.
 Aaker, D.A. (1996); Building Strong Brands, The Free Press, New York, NY, pp. 35, 71.
 Archana Kumar, Youn-Kyung Kim (2014). The store-as-a-brand strategy: The effect of store environment on customer responses, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21,685–695.
 Aypar Uslu, Berna Kobak, KolivarAnalyzing(2013). The Brand Equity of Turkish Airlines Services: Comparing the Japanese and Turkish Perspectives, Social and Behavioral Sciences 99, 446 – 454.
 Adliagan, A. H., & Buttle, F. A. (2002). “SYSTRA-SQ: A New measure of bank service quality”. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 13, 362-338.
 Barich, H. & Kotler, P. (1991). A framework for marketing image management. Sloan Management Review, 45, 94-104.
 Belch G. E. & M. I. (2001), “Advertising and promotion”, MC Grow-Hill Companies, Inc. 5th Edition.
 Bai, X and Gao, L. (2014). Online consumer behavior and its relationship to website atmospheric induced flow: Insights into online travel agencies in China, journal of retailing and consumer services.653-665.
 Hsu, M. K., Hung, Y. & Swanson, S. (2010). Grocery store image, travel distance, satisfaction and behavioral intentions: Evidence from a Midwest college town, Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 38 (2), pp. 115-132.
 Koo,D,M. (2003) Inter-relationships among store images, store satisfaction and store loyalty among Korea discount retail patrons.Asia Pasific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, Vol15. N4.
 Michon, R., Yu, H. & Smith, D. (2007). The shopping experience of female fashion leaders ,” International Journal of Retail and distribution Management, 35 (6), pp. 488-501.
 Orth, U. R. & Green, M. T. (2009); “Consumer Loyalty to Family Versus Non-Family Business: The Roles of Store Image, Trust and Satisfaction,”Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, no.16,pp.248–259.
 Virvilaite, R., Saladienc, V. & Bogdonaire, R. (2009). “Peculiarities of impulse purchasing in the market of consumer goods”, Commerce of Engineering Decisions, 2, pp. 101-109.
 Zeitham, V.A. & Bitner, M.J. (1996). Services Marketing , Mc Graw – Hill. International Editions,New York.
The Impact of Strategy Implementation Drivers on Projects Effectiveness in Non-Governmental Organizations
Authors :- Mohammed Abo Ramadan
Keywords :- NGOs, Strategy Implementation Drivers, Projects Effectiveness.
Published Online :- 02 July 2015
View Full AbstractThis paper aims to examine the impact of strategy implementation drivers on projects effectiveness in NGOs. Though, the ultimate purpose of this paper is to open directions for future studies, using a relatively small sample, rather than to provide generalizable results and conclusive evidence. The study adopts quantitative approach to investigate the strategy implementation drivers-projects effectiveness relationship. A questionnaire was designed, validated and then distributed to a sample consisting of 25 NGOs working in the city of Warsaw. The collected data was analyzed by statistical methods and manipulated using SPSS software. To test the study propositions, regression and correlation statistical tests were used. The findings demonstrate that strategy implementation drivers (including leadership, culture, structure and resources allocation) have strong positive impact on projects effectiveness. Nevertheless, the small sample of the study limits the generalizability of the findings. Hence, it is strongly recommended to conduct future studies in this direction using larger sample.
View References Aaltonen, P. & Ikävalko, H. (2002). Implementing strategies successfully. Integrated Manufacturing Systems, 13(6), 415-418.
 Alexander, L. D. (1985). Successfully implementing strategic decisions. Long Range Planning, 18(3),91-97.
 Alexander, L. D. (1991). Strategy implementation: Nature of the problem. International Review of Strategic Management, 2(1), 73-96.
 Bailey, D. (1992). The Strategic restructuring of nonprofit associations: An exploratory Study. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 3(1), 65-80.
 Beer, M., & Eisenstat, R. (2000). The silent killers of strategy implementation and learning. Sloan Management Review, 14(4), 29-40.
 Bower, J. L., Christopher, A., Bartlett, C., Christensen, R., Pearson, A., & Andrews, K. (1991). Business policy: Text and cases (7th Ed.). Illinois: Irwin.
 Buckmaster, N. (1999). Associations between outcome measurement: Accountability and learning for non-profit organizations. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 12(2), 186-97.
 Carpenter, M.A., & Sanders, G. (2009). Strategic management: A dynamic perspective – concepts. New Jersey: Upper Saddle River, Pearson International.
 Daft, R.L. (2001). Organization theory and design (7th Ed.). Canada: South-Western Thomson Learning.
 David, F. R. (2011). Strategic management: Concepts and cases. New Jersey: Pearson Education.
 Drazin, R., & Howard, P. (1984). Strategy implementation: A technique for organizational design. Columbia Journal of World Business, 19, 40-46.
 Ehlers, M. B., & Lazenby, J. A. A. (2007). Strategic management: Southern African concepts and cases (2nd Ed.). Pretoria: Van Schaik.
 Epstein, M., & Buhovac, A. (2009). Improving performance measurements: Not-for-profit organizations. Certified Management Accountant, 83(7), 16-21.
 Fowler, A. (2001). A Guide to good governance of NGOs: NGO Leadership Development Series No. 1, Nairobi: Kenya Council of NGOs.
 Golensky, M. (1993). The board-executive relationship in nonprofit organizations: Partnership or power struggle?. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 4(2), 177-191.
 Govindarajan, V. (1988). A contingency approach to strategy implementation at the business-unit level integrating administrative mechanisms with strategy. Academy of Management Journal, 31(4), 828-853.
 Gupta, A. K., & Govindarajan, V. (1984). Business unit strategy, managerial characteristics, and business unit effectiveness at strategy implementation. Academy of Management Journal, 27(1), 25-41.
 Hambrick, D. C., & Cannella, A.A. (1989). Strategy implementation as substance and selling. The Academy of Management Executive, 3(4), 278-85.
 Hammer, M., & Champy, J. (2001). Reengineering the cooperation. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
 Harrington, R .J. (2006). The moderating effects of size, manager tactics and involvement on strategy implementation in food service. Hospitality Management, 25(3), 373-397.
 Higgins, J. M. (2005). The Eight ‘S’s of successful strategy execution. Journal of Change Management, 5(1), 3-13.
 Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., & Hoskisson, R. E. (2011). Strategic management: Competitiveness and globalization (9th Ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Southwestern Publishing.
 Hrebiniak, L .G. (2006). Obstacles to effective strategy implementation. Organizational Dynamics, 35(1), 12-31.
 Hrebiniak, L., & Joyce, W. (1984). Implementing Strategy. New York: Macmillan.
 Jaques, J. (1952). The changing culture of a factory. New York: Dryden Press.
 Judson, A.S. (1995). Making Strategy Happen: Transforming plans into reality. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
 Kotler, P. (1984). Marketing management: Analysis, planning and control (5th Ed.). New Jersey:Prentice-Hall.
 Kushner, R. J., & Poole, P. P. (1996). Exploring structure effectiveness relationships in nonprofits arts organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 7(2), 119-136.
 Miller, A., & Dess, G. (1996). Strategic management (International Edition). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
 Morley, E., Vinson, E., & Hatry, H. (2001). Outcome measurement in nonprofit organizations: Current practices and recommendations. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
 Murray, V. V., Bradshaw, P., & Wolpin, J. (1992). Power in and around nonprofit boards: A neglected dimension of governance. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 3(2), 165-182.
 Nutt, P.C. (1983). Implementation approaches for project planning. Academy of Management Review, 8(4), 600-611.
 Olson, E. M., Slater, S. F., & Hult, G. T. M. (2005). The performance implications of fit among business strategy, marketing organization structure and strategic Behavior. Journal of Marketing, 69(3), 49-65.
 Poister, T. (2003). Measuring performance in public and nonprofit organizations. New York: Wiley.
 Poole, D., Nelson, J., Carnahan, S., Chepenik, N., & Tubiak, C. (2000). Evaluating performance measurement systems in nonprofit agencies’: The program accountability quality scale (PAQS). American Journal of Evaluation, 21(1), 15–26.
 Rapert, M. I, & Wren, B .(1998). Reconsidering organizational structure: A dual perspective of frameworks and processes. Journal of Managerial Issues, 10(3), 287-302.
 Reed, R., & Buckley, M.R. (1988). Strategy in action – techniques for implementing strategy. Long Range Planning, 21(3), 67-74.
 Reid, D. M. (1989). Operationalizing strategic planning. Strategic Management Journal, 10(6), 553-567.
 Robbins, S. P., & Sanghi, S. (2007). Organizational behavior. New Delhi: Pearson Education.
 Robbins, S. P., Judge, T. A., Odendaal, A., & Roodt, G. (2009). Organizational behavior: Global and southern African perspective (2nd Ed.). Cape Town: Pearson Education, Inc, publishing as Prentice Hall.
 Robson, W. (1997). Strategic management and information systems. Edinburgh: Prentice Hall.
 Salamon, L. M. (1997). Holding the center: America’s nonprofit sector at a crossroads. New York: The Nathan Cummings Foundation.
 Schaap, J. I. (2006). Toward strategy implementation success: An empirical study of the role of senior level leaders in the Nevada gaming industry. UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, 10(2), 13- 37.
 Schein, E. H. (1995). Organizational culture. Frankfurt/New York: Campus Verlag.
 Simons, R. (1995). Levers of control: How managers use innovative control systems to drive strategic renewal. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
 Skivington, E. J., & Daft, L. R. (1991). A study of organizational framework and process modalities for the implementation of business level strategic decisions. Journal of Management Studies, 28(1), 45- 68.
 Sowa, J., Selden, S., & Sandfort, J. (2004). No longer unmeasurable?. A multidimensional integrated model of nonprofit organizational effectiveness. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 33(4), 711-728.
 Stone, M. M., Bigelow, B., & Crittenden, W. (1999). Research on strategic management in nonprofit organizations. Administration and Society, 31(3), 378-423.
 Stonich, P. (1982). Implementing strategy: Making strategy happen. Cambridge: Ballinger.
 Thaw, D., & Petersen, R. (1998). How are you managing organizational change?. Durban: Olive Publications.
 Thompson, A., & Strickland, A. (2003). Strategic management concepts and case (13th Ed). New York:McGrawHill/Irwin.
 Thompson, J. D. (1967). Organizations in action. New York: McGraw-Hill.
 Titiev, M. (1959). Introduction to cultural anthropology. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
 Tom, B., & Frentzel, B. (2005). Performance-based management builds support and funding. Nonprofit World, 23(6), 28-29.
 United Way International.(2006). Global standards for united way organizations. [quoted as UWI]  Waterman, Jr., R., Peters, T. J., & Phillips, J. R. (1980). Structure is not organization. Business Horizons, 23(3), 14-26.
 Welch, J. (2005). Winning. London: Harper Collins Publishers.
 Wernham, R. (1985). Obstacles to strategy implementation in a nationalized industry. Journal of Management Studies, 22(6), 632-648.
 Wheelen, T. L., & Hunger, J. D. (2006). Cases: Strategic management and business policy (10th Ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
 Wooldridge, B., & Floyd, S. W. (1992). Middle management involvement in strategy and its association with strategic type: A research note. Strategic Management Journal, 92(13), 153-167.
 Workman, J. P. (1993). Marketing’s limited role in new product development in one computer systems firm. Journal of Marketing Research 30, 405-21.
 Yip, G. (1992). Total global strategy: Managing for worldwide competitive advantage. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Addressing the Elephant in the Room: Are Universities Committed to the Third Stream Agenda
Authors :- Derek Watson and Lynne Hall
Keywords :- Academic Identity, Executive Commitment, External Engagement, Third Stream.
Published Online :- 16 November 2015
View Full AbstractThe third stream agenda is a critical strategy in the pursuit of enriched learning, enhancing student employability and much needed revenues. Voices of support of the third stream agenda resonate across political parties, the business community and universities. Academic journals have also reflected a scenario in which the academic community of practice have transformed its rational into ‘can do’ mission statements and strategic policies with a clear focus to source, convert and embed third stream activities. In return, universities seek quarries such as more marketable programmes of studies, committed and commercially aware academics, improved business interchange and in light of the economic recession and subsequent austere measures, the replenishment of new revenue streams.
In 2014, an empirical research study involved 28 in-depth semi-structured interviews with university executives and academics across five UK University Business Schools. The key thrust of the research was to answer the question ‘are universities committed to the third steam agenda’. The research findings acknowledge current literature concerning university ‘mission statements’ and ‘strategic policy’ commitments to third stream activities. However, the research contribution openly challenges existing literature in stating that both Russell Group and P92 universities are failing to exhibit tangible evidence that they are actively achieving such commitments.
View References Adonis, Lord A. 2014. Mending the Fractured Economy: Smarter State, Better Jobs. Policy Network, http://www.policynetwork.net/publications_download.aspx. Accessed June 1st 2015
 Al-Dajani, H., Dedoussis, E., Watson, E. & Tzokas, N. (2014).A framework of key success factors. Journal of Industry & Higher Education.28(3).pp. 201-213.
 Archer, L., 2008. The new neoliberal subjects? Young/er academics’ constructions of professional identity. Journal of education policy, 23(3), pp.265–285.
 Babbitt, B., 1989. Questionnaire construction manual annex. Questionnaires: Literature survey and bibliography. Operations Research Associates, (June).
 Brenner, N., Peck, J. & Theodore, N.I.K., 2010. Variegated neoliberalization : geographies, modalities, pathways. Global Networks, 2, pp.182–222. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1471-0374.2009.00277.x/pdf.
 Bubela, T.M. & Caulfield, T., 2010. Role and reality: technology transfer at Canadian universities. Trends in biotechnology, 28(9), pp.447–451.
 Cable, V. & Willetts, D., 2011. Government White Paper. Innovation & Research Strategy for Growth. Available at: http://www.bis.gov.uk/innovationforgrowth. [Accessed March 3, 2014]  Cable, V. & Willetts, D., 2010. Higher education funding for 2011-12 and beyond.
 Catts, R. and Chamings, D. (2006). Recognising current competencies of volunteers in emergency service organisations. The Journal of Workplace Learning. 18 (7) 451 – 463.
 Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K., 2007. Research Methods in Education, Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-8527.2007.00388_4.x.
 Coyle, P. 2014., How entrepreneurial leadership can engage university staff in the development of an entrepreneurial culture. Journal of Industry & Higher Education. 28(4) pp 263-269. London; IP Publishing Ltd.
 Cunningham, J., & Harney, B., (2011). Third Stream Activities : Company Formation – Issues, Challenges and Implications. Irish Journal of Management. 201 – 210. National University of Ireland Publications.
 Department for Business Innovation and Skills, 2011. Innovation and Research Strategy for Growth,
 Department of Business, 2011. Higher Education : Students at the Heart of the System.
 Economist, The (2002). ‘Innovation’s golden goose’. Economist (US Edition). December 12, 2002.
 Etzkowitz, H., (2014). The entrepreneurial university wave. From ivory tower to global economic engine. Journal of Industry & Higher Education, 28(4) pp223-232. London; IP Publishing Ltd.
 EU (2013).European Entrepreneurial Region (EER). http://cor.europa.eu/en/takepart/eer/Pages/eer.aspx.
 Ferguson, M., 2014. Knowledge exchange between universities and the creative industries in the UK: A case study of current practice. Industry and Higher Education, 28(3), pp.177–183.
 Findlow, S., 2012. Higher education change and professional-academic identity in newly “academic”disciplines: the case of nurse education. Higher Education, 63(1), pp.117–133.
 Fumasoli, T. & Lepori, B., 2011. Patterns of strategies in Swiss higher education institutions. Higher Education, 61, pp.157–178.
 Goodwill, R.J., 2012. Engaging staff communities in a knowledge transfer strategy: a case study at the University of Melbourne. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 34(3), pp.285–294.
 Harman, G., 2010. Australian university research commercialisation: perceptions of technology transfer specialists and science and technology academics. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 32, pp.69–83.
 Hellstrom, T., Jacob, M & Wigren-Kristoferson, C. (2013). Organizing for the Third Mission. Journal of Industry & Higher Education. 27(3). pp. 193-204.
 Hughes, T. et al., 2011. Scholarship That Matters : Academic – Practitioner Engagement in Business and Management. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 10, pp.40–57.
 Jansen, S., van de Zande, T., Brinkkemper, S., Stam, E. & Varma, V. (2015). How education, stimulation, and incubation encourage student entrepreneurship: Observations from MIT, IIIT , and Utrecht University. The International Journal of Management Education. 13. pp. 170 – 181.
 Jongbloed, B., Endres, J. & Salerno, C. (2008). Higher Education and its communities: Interconnections, interdependencies and a research agenda. Journal of Higher Education.56: 303 – 324. Open Access Publishers.
 Killen, C.P., 2013. Evaluation of project interdependency visualizations through decision scenario experimentation. International Journal of Project Management, 31, pp.804–816.
 Kothari, S., and Handscombe, R.D. (2007). Sweep or seep? Structure, culture, enterprise and universities”. Management Decision. Vol. 45. No. 1. pp. 43-61.
 Landau, D., Drori, I. & Terjesen, S. (2014). Multiple legitimacy narratives and planned organizational change. Human Relations.
 Lawton-Smith, H. & Walters, R. (2015). Regional synergies in Triple Helix regions. Journal of Industry & Higher Education. 29(1). pp. 25-35.
 Li-Hua, R. (2012). Examining Strategic Aspects of Innovation and Internationalization of Higher Education. The Salford PM12 Experience, pp.1–19.
 Lockett, A., Wright, M. & Wild, A.(2015). The Institutionalization of Third Stream Activities in UK Higher Education: The Role of Discourse and Metrics. British Journal of Management, 26: 78 – 92. Wiley Publications.
 Lui, C.W., Warburton, K.J. & Bartlett, H. (2009). Doing good and feeling good: The experiences of older volunteers in a university research registry. Journal of Educational Gerontology, 35: 553 – 569. Routledge Publishers.
 Markuerkiaga, L., Errasti, N., & Igartua, J.I. (2014). Success factors for managing an entrepreneurial university. Journal of Industry & Higher Education, 28(4): 233-244. London; IP Publishing Ltd.
 Massey, A., 2010. Higher Education in the Age of Austerity. Part Two: Shared Services, Outsourcing and Entrepreneurship. Policy Exchange Research Note.
 May, T. (2015). http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-33561040
 Merton, R.K. (1973). The Sociology of science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
 Moen, R. & Doyle. K.O. (2011). Measures of Academic Motivation: A Conceptual Review. Journal of Research in Higher Education, 8(1): 1 – 23. Springer Publishers.
 Molas-Gallart, J. & Castro-Martinez, E. (2007).Journal of Research Evaluation, 14(4): 321 – 330.Beech Tree Publishing.
 Molas-Gallart, J. et al., 2002. Measuring third stream activities. Final report to the Russell Group of Universities. Brighton: SPRU, University of Sussex.
 Mugenda, O.M., 1999. Research methods: Quantitative and qualitative approaches, African Centre for Technology Studies.
 Murdock, A., Shariff, R. & Wilding, K., 2013. Knowledge exchange between academia and the third sector. Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice, 9(3), pp.419–430.
 Nelles, J. & Vorley, T. (2010). From policy to practice: engaging and embedding the third mission in contemporary universities. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy.30(7): 341 – 353.Emerald Group Publishing.
 Osbourne, G. (2014).www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-26593132
 Parker, L.D. (2013). Contemporary University Strategising : The Financial Imperative. Financial Accountability and Management. 29. pp. 1–25.
 Penaluna, K., Penaluna, A., Jones, C. & Matley, H. 2014. When did you last predict a good idea? Exploring the case of assessing creativity through learning outcomes. Journal of Industry & Higher Education.28 (6).pp. 399 – 410.
 Perkins, J.F. & Tierney, W.G. (2014). The Bayh-Dole Act, technology transfer and the public interest.Journal of Industry & Higher Education.28(2).pp. 143-151.
 Perkmann, M. & Walsh, K., 2013. University–industry relationships and open innovation: Towards a research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 9, pp.259–280.
 Philpott, K. et al., 2011. The entrepreneurial university: Examining the underlying academic tensions. Technovation, 31, pp.161–170.
 Ramos-Vielba, I., Fernández-Esquinas, M. & Espinosa-de-los-Monteros, E., 2010. Measuring university–industry collaboration in a regional innovation system. Scientometrics, 84, pp.649–667.
 Ratinho, T. & Henriques, E., 2010. The role of science parks and business incubators in converging countries: Evidence from Portugal. Technovation, 30, pp.278–290.
 Reino, A & Jaakson, K. (2014). value conflicts embedded in service-oriented academic professions. Jounral of Industry & Higher Education. 27(1). pp. 15 – 25.
 Scott, P. (1997). ‘The changing role of the university in the production of knowledge’. Tertiary Education and Management, 3(1): PP 5 – 14.
 Secundo, G. & Elia, G. 2014. A performance measurement system for academic entrepreneurship: a case study. Journal of measuring Business Excelllence. 18 (3).. pp. 23-27.
 Shore, C., 2012. How commercialisation is redefining the mission and meaning of the university: a reply to Steve Hoffman. Social Anthropology, 19(4), pp.495–499.
 Shore, C. & McLauchlan, L., 2012. “Third mission” activities, commercialisation and academic entrepreneurs. Social Anthropology, 20, pp.267–286.
 Slingere, J., Van de Zande, T., Brinkkemper, S. & Stam, E. (2015). How education, stimulation, and incubation encourage student entrepreneurship: Observations from MIT, IIIT, and Utrecht University. 13. pp. 170 – 181.
 Small, M.W. & Minkes, L., 2010. On the nature of learning communities: a study of four organisations. Journal of Management Development, 29, pp.783–794.
 Tenner, E. (1997). Why Things Bite back, Basic Books, London. New York.
 Viale, R. & Etzkowitz, H., 2010. The capitalization of knowledge: a triple helix of university-industrygovernment, Edward Elgar Publishing.
 Wade, A. & Demb, A., 2009. A conceptual model to explore faculty community engagement. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 15(2).
 Whitchurch, C., 2009. The rise of the blended professional in higher education: a comparison between the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States. Higher Education, 58(3), pp.407–418.
 Witty, Sir A. 2013. Encouraging a British Invention Revolution: Sir Andrew Witty’s Review of Universities and Growth, Final Report and Recommendations,
ttps://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/249720/bis-13-1241-encouraging-a-british-invention-revolution-andrew-witty-review-R1.pdf.(accessed June 1st 2015)
 Wilson, T., 2012. Wilson Report; A Review of Business-University Collaboration’, Available at: http://www.bis.gov.uk/business-universitycollaboration.
 Woollard, D., 2010. Towards a theory of university entrepreneurship Developing a theoretical model. Industry and Higher Education, 24(6), pp.413–427.
Social Media E-marketing Campaign Compared with the Traditional Way; Case Study Bahrain E-Government
Authors :- Ahmed Azzam Elmasri and Noora Hilal
Keywords :- Awareness and capital expansion ,eGovernment, Marketing, Message diffusion, Social Media.
Published Online :- 21 February 2015
View Full AbstractSocial media marketing presents prospectively seductive chances for innovative appearances of commerce and communication between consumers and marketers. As advertisers classically desire to find various ways to pursue their intention audiences, several innovative media opportunities are offered to advertisers. Though, world is at a standstill social media initiates. In distinction to traditional marketing media such as television, there are measurements and customer behavior modeling subjects that will require to be addressed before marketers that determine and handle their media investments will be capable to entirely hold the opportunities and steer the risks presented by social media. Social media have become a major factor in influencing different aspects of consumer behavior including awareness, information acquisition, opinions, attitudes, purchase behavior, and post-purchase communication and evaluation. Our study focuses on describing how to run an effective social media marketing campaign compared with the traditional way (e.g. E-Government Authority). The Kingdom of Bahrain’s e-Government strategy is focused on ensuring the effective delivery of government services to citizens, residents, businesses and customers. Kingdom of Bahrain should use social media in their marketing communications because it allows them to inform their customers and create a two-way communication. This communication can help companies to influence consumers and differentiate themselves. It can also help the corporate identity, build confidence for the company as well as create relationships. Social media is a cost effective way to become global and create reach.
View References Vikram, Raja. “The Five Concept of Marketing”, Saching.com. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
 Kotler, Philip & Keller, L. Kevin (2012). Marketing Management 14e. Pearson Education Limited 2012.
 Needham, Dave (1996). Business for Higher Awards. Oxford, England: Heinemann.
 Kerin, Hartley and Rudelius “Marketing, the Core,” 4th Edition, McGraw Hill Publishing 2001.
 Ahlqvist, Toni; Bäck, A., Halonen, M., Heinonen, S (2008). “Social media road maps exploring the futures triggered by social media”.VTT Tiedotteita – Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus (2454): 13.
 Thomas. F. Gordon. “E-Government – Introduction”, 2002 ERCIM News No.48.
 Kaplan Andreas M., Haenlein Michael, (2010), Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media, Business Horizons, Vol. 53, Issue 1 (page 61).
 H. Kietzmann, Jan; Kristopher Hermkens (2011). “Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media”. Business Horizons 54: 241–251.
Land Selection; Using Multiple Criteria Decision Making
Authors :- Neda Jalaliyoon, Amir Arastoo and Amjad Pirouti
Keywords :- Site Selection, Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, Analytic Hierarchy Process,, Hospital Land.
Published Online :- 02 July 2015
View Full AbstractIn this paper a new approach to determine criteria for hospital site selection in an efficient and reliable way is presented. It is based on environmental indices and multi-criteria decision-making methods. The technique combines the criteria and sub-criteria by means of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method and interpreting the information obtained from the experts during the decision-making process. The AHP which is the most appropriate for the analysis of uncertain data, like experts’ estimations and also, it allows the aggregation of the experts’ judgments on each of the indicators. The method has been applied to the proposal is for determining most important criteria to select the suitable land for construction.
The participating experts coincided with the appreciation that the method proposed in this paper is useful and an improvement from traditional techniques such as environmental impact studies, lifecycle analysis, etc. They find the results obtained coherent, the process seems sufficiently rigorous and precise, and the use of resources is significantly less than in other methods.
View References Zhou, L., & Wu, J. (2012). GIS-Based Multi-Criteria Analysis for Hospital Site Selection in Haidian District of Beijing. Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management. Hogskolan I Gavle, 1–50.
 Perry, B., Gesler, W., 2002. Physical access to primary health care in Andean Bolivia. Social Science & Medicine 50, 1177–1188.
 Hare, T.S., Barcus, H.R., 2007. Geographical accessibility and Kentucky’s heartrelated hospital services. Applied Geography 27, 181–205.
 Nobre, F.F., Trotta, L.T.F., Gomes, L.F.A.M., 1999. Multi-criteria decision making: an approach to setting priorities in health care. Symposium on statistical bases for public health decision making: from exploration to modeling18, 3345–3354.
 Ohta, K., Kobashi, G., Takano, S., Kagaya, S., Yamada, H., Minakami, H.,Yamamura, E., 2007. Analysis of the geographical accessibility of neurosurgical emergency hospitals in Sapporo city using GIS and
AHP. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 21(6), 687–698
Cheng-Ru, W., Chin-Tsai, L., Huang-Chu, C., 2007. Optimal selection of location for Taiwanese hospitals to ensure a competitive advantage by using the analytic hierarchy process and sensitivity analysis. Building and Environment 42, 1431–1444.
Ali, S., Ebrahim, Z.M., 2011. Hospital site selection using two-stage fuzzy multi-criteria decision making process. Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering 5(1), 32–43.
 Cloquell-Ballester, V., Monterde-Diaz R., Cloquell-Ballester V.,Santamarina-Siurana M., Systematic comparative and sensitivity analyses of additive and outranking techniques for supporting impact significance assessments. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 27. Issue 1. January 2007.
Hasse J. y Lathrop R.. Land Resource Impact Indicators or Urban Sprawl. Rowan University and Collage Farm Road. United State. 2003.
Brilly. M. R. Simon y A. Vidmar. Monitoring The Impact of Urbanisation on the Glinscica Stream. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. Parts A/B/C. Volume 31. Issue 17. 2006.
Zhang. Y.. Y. Zhifeng y L. Wei. Analyses of urban ecosystem based on information entropy. Ecological Modelling. Volume 197. Issues 1-2. August 2006.
Zhang. Y.. Y. Zhifeng y Y. Xiangyi. Measurement and evaluation of interactions in complex urban ecosystem. Ecological Modelling. Volume 196. Issues 1-2. 10 July 2006.
Brown A.L.. Increasing the utility of urban environmental quality information. Landscape and Urban Planning 65 (2003) 85–93.
Hermann. B.G.; Kroeze. C.; Jawjit. W. Assessing environmental performance by combining life cycle assessment. multi-criteria analysis and environmental performance indicators: Journal of Cleaner Production 15 (2007)18. p. 1787 – 1796.
Saaty. T.L. Decision Making with interdependence and feedback. The Analytic Network Process: RWS Publications. Pittsburg 2001.
Leskinen P. Comparison of alternative scoring techniques when assessing decision maker’s multi-objective preferences in natural resource management. Journal of Environmental Management. 2007 October 85(2):363-70.
Belton V. y Stewart T. Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis an Integrated Approach. Kluwer Academic Publishers. United Kingdom. 2002.
 Barba-Romero. S.. Pomerol. J.Ch. Decisiones Multicriterio. Fundamentos Teóricos y Utilización Práctica. Serv. Public. Universidad de Alcalá de Henares.1997.
Saaty. Th.. The Analytic Hierarchy Process. Planning. Priority Setting. Resource Allocation.. Pittsburgh: RWS Publcations. 1996.
Ramzan, N., Degenkolbe, S., Werner, W., Evaluating and improving environmental performance of HC´s recovery system: A case study of distillation unit, Chemical Engineering Journal, 2007.
Sólnes J.. Enviromental Quality Indexing of Large Industrial Development Alternatives using AHP. University of Iceland. 2003.
Vargas, L.G., 1990: An overview of the analytic hierarchy process and its applications. European Journal of Operational Research, 48: 2−8.
 Jalaliyoon, N. Abu Bakar, N. Taherdoost, H.(2014). Propose a methodology to implement balanced scorecard for operational appraisal of industrial group. Procedia Technology 12 ( 2014 ) 659 – 666.
Saaty. T.L. The Analytic Hierarchy Process, Planning, Piority Setting, Resource Allocation. McGraw-Hill, New york, 1980.
Prospective Teacher Educators’ Awareness towards the Key Components of NLP
Authors :- E. Ramganesh and I. Joseph Milton PaulrajKeywords :- Neuro Linguistic Programming, Individual difference, Rapport creation, Emotional and Cognitive boosters, Flexibility, and Elicitation.
Published Online :- 02 July 2015
View Full AbstractThis study explores the prospective teacher educators’ awareness towards the key components of Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). NLP is “the study of the structure of the subjective experience”. it is ‘individual difference’ that differentiates the students in their academic achievement. The learning style survey recognizes the idea of an individual’s learning tendencies. Thus the knowledge on identification of ‘individual difference’ among the students is required for a teacher. It is suggested for school administers to use NLP in schools for ‘establishing rapport’ with students, staff, and the community. If teacher educators learn to establish and maintain rapport with students, they could make their academic career victorious. ‘Emotional and cognitive boosters’ is to bring an emotional environment to evoke the learners engagement. NLP view is that it is better to develop ‘flexibility’ to learn through several different strategies, rather than rigidly using one. Elicitation, by definition, refers to evoking a state by one’s behaviour. So teacher educators, by having the knowledge of elicitation, could elicit the right response from the learner. Hence this paper focuses with Individual difference, Rapport creation, Emotional and Cognitive boosters, Flexibility, and Elicitation & of prospective teacher educators. By adopting normative survey method, this study was conducted with a sample of 45 prospective teacher educators studying at the Department of Educational Technology, Bharathidasan University, Truchirappalli. A research tool, on ‘Neuro Linguistic Programming Awareness Assessment Scale’ (NLPAAS) developed and validated by the investigators, was used for data collection. Differential statistics were used for the analysis of data. Findings reveal that prospective teacher educators are to improve their knowledge on NLP.
View References Blackerby, D.A. (2002). NLP in Education – A Magnificent Opportunity. Positive Health. Retrieved June14, from http://www.positivehealth.com/permit/articles/NLP/black39.html.
 Bruin, J. (2006). New test: command to compute new test. UCLA: Statistical Consulting Group. http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/stata/ado/analysis/.
 Churchs Richard (2009). Improving teachers’ effectiveness with NLP. Available at http://teachingexperstise.com/articles/improving-teacher-effectiveness-with-nlp-3211.
 Heap, M (2008). The validity of some early claims of neuro-linguistic programming. Skeptical intelligencer 11, 6-13.
 Helm. D.J. (1994). Neuro Linguistic Programming: Establishing Rapport Between School Administrators and the Students, Staff, and Community. Education, 114(4), 625-628.
 Karunaratne, M. (2010). Neuro-linguistic programming and application in treatment of phobias. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 16(4), 203-207, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2010.02.003.
 Kudliskis Voldis & Burden Robert ( 2009). Applying ‘what works’ in psychology to enhancing examination success in schools: The potential contribution of NLP, Thinking Skills and Creativity, 4, 170-177. Doi: 10.1016/j.tsc.2009.09.002 .
 Milroad, R. (2004). The role of NLP in teachers’ classroom discourse, ELT journal, 58(1), 28-37.
 Pishghadam Reza, Shayesteh Shaghayegh, Shapoori Mitra (2011). Validation of an NLP Scale and its Relationship with Teacher Success in High Schools, Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol.
2, No. 4, pp. 909-917, July 2011 academy Publisher Manufactured in Finland doi:10.4304/jltr.2.4.909-917.
 Ren, Guanxin (2013). Which Learning Style Is Most Effective In Learning Chinese As a Second Language, Journal of Internation Education Research, 9.
 Reynaldo, J & Santos, A. (1999). Cronbach’s Alpha: A Tool for Assessing the Reliability of Scales journal of extension, 32(2). Available at http://www.joe.org/index.php.
 Skinner, Heather and Stephens, Paula (2003). Speaking the same language: the relevance of neurolinguistic programming to effective marketing communications, Journal of Marketing Communications, 9:3, 177-192, DOI: 10.1080/13527260320000129926.
 Sumrall Shannon (2010). NLP and Education. Available at
 Tosey Paul and Mathison Jane (2008). ‘Neuro-Linguistic Programming, learning and education. An introduction, the encyclopaedia of informal education. Retreived 19.03.2014 from http://infed.org/mobi/neuro-linguistic-programming-learning-and-education-an-introduction/.
 Tosey Paul and Mathison Jane (2010). Neuro Linguistic Programming as an innovation in education and teaching, innocation in Education and Teaching International, 47:3, 317-326, DOI: 10.1080/14703297.2010.498183.
 Trevor Day (2005). NLP modeling in the classroom: students modeling the good practice of other students, Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association New Researchers/Student Conference, University of Glamorgan, 14 September 2005, Department of Education, University of
 Winch Stacey (2005). From frustration to satisfaction: using NLP to improve self-expression. In EA Education Conference, English Australia. Available at http://eprints.qut.edu.au/48755/.
 Yero, J. L. (2001). NLP and Education: A shift of focus. Anchor Point Magazine, 15, 9.