Education and Human Capital Development in Bahrain:”Future International Collaboration with Malaysia”
Authors :- Saad Darwish
Keywords :- Bahrain, Education, Human Capital, International Collaboration, Malaysia.
Published Online :- 20 October 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    During the past few years, Bahrain has emerged itself as a challenging nation at different fronts. Education remains at the forefront of planning at the economic levels; this of course is related immensely to the need of human capital development at national level. Present government has initiated reforms in major fields and education sector reforms include establishing new polytechnic college, teachers training programs and taking initiatives to improve vocational programs at upper secondary school level, and rigorous initiatives of quality assurance of the educational institutions. This was accompanied by issuing licenses to large number of private universities. This paper will investigate the opportunities for future collaborations and the areas of mutual interests with Malaysian education system. A generating force for these efforts is the statement of his Excellency Crown Prince of Bahrain Salman Bin Hamad Al-Khalifa “Investing in people is very important to the future of Bahrain.”
  • View References

    [1] Achoui, M. M. (2009). Human resource development in Gulf countries: an analysis of the trends and challenges facing Saudi Arabia. Human Resource Development International, 12(1), 35-46. doi:10.1080/13678860802638826
    [2] Acs, Z., Audretsch, D., Braunerhjelm, P., Carlsson, B.,( 2003). The missing link: the knowledge filter and endogenous growth. In: DRUID Summer Conference on ‘‘Creating, Sharing and Transferring Knowledge. The Role of Geography, Institutions and Organization’’, Copenhagen.
    [3] AlHajj, D., AlKowari, H., Hallak, M., Khamis, F., & George, S.( 2014). Are women better Leaders? An exploratory study of women’s leadership with special reference to Bahrain. International Journal of Research in Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management, 2(2), 233-244.
    [4] Al-Masnad, L. (1999). Al amalah alwataniya wa dawruhah fi altanmiya alsina’ya fi dowal majlis alta’awun [The role of national labor in industrial development in GCC: The present and the future]. Paper presented at the Seventh Industrial Conference in the GCC countries organized by The Gulf Organization for Industrial Consultations, in Doha.
    [5] Arab World Competitiveness Report, (2007). Sustaining the growth momentum. In M. D. Hanouz, S. El Diwany & T. Yousef (Eds.), (pp. 271)
    [6] Bahrain Factsheet. 2009. https://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/fs/bhrn.pdf Accessed 19 July 2014.
    [7] Bahrain Factsheet. 2013. http://www.bahrainedb.com/en/…/EDB-Vision-2030-May-2013.pdf Accessed 21 July 2014.
    [8] Bahraini Women in Numbers 2013. http://www.scw.bh/UploadFiles/pdf/BahrainiWomen_inNumbers2013.pdf. Accessed 23 July 2014.
    [9] Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of management, 17(1),
    99-120.
    [10] Barney, J. B., & Wright, P. M. (1997). On becoming a strategic partner: The role of human resources in
    gaining competitive advantage.
    [11] Calvert, J. R., & Al‐Shetaiwi, A. S. 2002. Exploring the mismatch between skills and jobs for women in
    Saudi Arabia in technical and vocational areas: The views of Saudi Arabian private sector business
    managers. International Journal of Training and Development, 6(2), 112-124.
    [12] Central Bank of Bahrain Annual Report. 2007. (pp. 43).
    http://www.cbb.gov.bh/assets/2008/AR%2007%20e.pdf Accessed 21 July 2014.
    [13] Central Bank of Bahrain Annual Report. 2009 (pp. 45).
    http://www.cbb.gov.bh/assets/2010/AR%202009-English.pdf Accessed 21 July 2014.
    [14] Doing Business 2009 — comparing regulation in 181 economies (2009) (pp. 211).
    [15] Gilmore, W.( 1999). Education and human capital in the new economy. Paper presented at the T, R &P Seminar.
    [16] Girgis, M.( 2002). ‘Would Nationals and Asians Replace Arab Workers in the GCC?’. Paper presented at the 4th Mediterranean Development Forum, Amman, 27 July 2002.
    [17] Global Investment House. (2014). Global Research Bahrain. http://www.globalinv.net/ Accessed 21 July, 2014.
    [18] Hatch, N. W., & Dyer, J. H.( 2004). Human capital and learning as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Strategic management journal, 25(12), 1155-1178.
    [19] International Business Consultancy Group, (2014). Why Bahrain? (2014).
    http://www.ibcgme.com/whybahrain.asp Accessed 21 July 2014.
    [20] Kamel, M. (2004). Gender and Development in the Middle East and North Africa: Women in the Public Sphere: World Bank.
    [21] Miller, T., Holmes, K. R., & Feulner, E. J. (2009). Index of economic freedom. Washington, DC, Heritage.
    [22] Negash, A.( 2006). Economic Empowerment of Women. Santa Clara University.
    http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/global_ethics/economic-empowerment.html. Accessed 22 July 2014.
    [23] Simkovic, M.(2013). Risk-Based Student Loans. Washington. & Lee L. Rev., 70, 527.
    [24] Stockley, D.( 2005). Newsletters-05/18: “Human Capital Concepts – Definition & Explanation”
    [25] Supreme Council for Women,( 2014). http://www.scw.gov.bh/default.aspx?lang=en Accessed 19 July 2014.
    [26] Tamkeen Profile,( 2013). http://www.lf.bh/en/about/?p=Profile#.U84vUOOSwkU Accessed 22 July 2014.
    [27] The Conference Board Survey,( 2014). http://www.conference-board.org. Accessed 23 July 2014.
    [28] The Report: Bahrain( 2013). Oxford Business Group.
    [29] Towards a better vision for education. (2013) (pp. 133): National Authority for Quality Assurance Authority for Education and Training
    [30] UNIFEM. (2004). Progress of Arab Women. New York: United Nations Publications.

Marketing vs E-Marketing
Authors :- Hamed Taherdoost and Neda Jalaliyoon
Keywords :- Traditional Marketing, Online Marketing, E-Marketing, Internet Marketing
Published Online :- 20 October 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    Marketing is a societal process, which discerns consumer’s wants, focusing on a product or service to fulfill those wants, attempting to mould the consumers toward the products or services offered. With change in time, marketing also affected positively with advance technology. E-marketing have added thrill in marketing professionals. This paper aims to provide an overview of Traditional Marketing and E-Marketing with their pros and cons.
  • View References

    [1] Eriksen, K. and C. Hemmingsen (2014). Online Marketing; New models of advertising?, Aalborg University.
    [2] Onishi, H. (2011). Traditional Marketing, Online Communication and Market Outcomes. Michigan, University of Michigan. PhD.
    [3] Taherdoost, H., S. Sahibuddin, et al. (2012a). Classification of Internet Products and Evaluation of Application Utilization Based on the Product Fulfillment Process 3rd European Conference of Computer Science Paris, France, Recent Advances in Computer Engineering Series, WSEAS Press, 160-164.
    [4] Taherdoost, H., S. Sahibuddin, et al. (2012b). Examination of Electronic Service Definitions International Conference on Advanced Computer Science Applications and Technologies (ACSAT), 73-77., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, IEEE.
    [5] Taherdoost, H., S. Sahibuddin, et al. (2012c). “Estimation of Electronic Services Usage based on the Applications’ level of Digitalization and Co-Creation.” Archives Des Sciences 65(10): 686-693.
    [6] Taherdoost, H., S. Sahibuddin, et al. (2013). “E-Services Usage Evaluation; Applications’ level of Co-Creation and Digitalization.” International Journal of Academic Research in Management 2(1): 10-18.
    [7] Taherdoost, H., S. Sahibuddin, et al. (2013b). Assessment of Electronic Service Applications’
    PracticeDomains Perspective. International Conference on Advanced Computer Science Applications and Technologies, Malaysia, CPS.

Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Entrepreneurial Performance: An Empirica Analysis of the Hospitality Industry in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria
Authors :- Godday Orziemgbe Oriarewo, Kenneth Chukwujioke Agbim, Tor Aondoaver Zever
Keywords :- Emotional intelligence, Entrepreneurial performance, Hospitality industry, Makurdi
Published Online :- 20 December 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    Individuals with greater emotional intelligence are better able to appraise, manage and regulate the emotions of others. Such abilities allow these individuals to judge if their emotions are linked to opportunities, and thus use these emotions in the process of decision making that enhances higher performance. However, while there is substantial evidence documenting the effects of emotional intelligence on leadership and educational performance, there is much less research examining the influence of emotional intelligence on entrepreneurial performance. Thus, this study assessed the influence of the dimensions of emotional intelligence (i.e., self emotional appraisal, others’ emotional appraisal, regulation of emotions and use of emotions) on entrepreneurial performance. Ex-post-facto design, simple random sampling technique and questionnaire were employed to generate data from selected respondents in the hospitality industry in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. The data were analysed using Chi-square test. It was found that each of the dimensions of emotional intelligence is significantly related to entrepreneurial performance. In view of this, enterprises’ founders/owners should ensure that their managers and employees are emotionally intelligent through a well planned recruitment and selection process, training and retraining programme. Again, a positive emotional climate within the organisation through rewards and compensation system should be encouraged.
  • View References

    [1] Ahearo, K. K., Ferris, G.R., Hochwarter, W.A., Douglas, C., & Ammeter, A. P. (2004). Leader political skill and team performance. Journal of Management, 30, 309-327.
    [2] Amy, E.B. (2010). Emotional intelligence: The secret of successful entrepreneurship. Faculty Publications: Agricultural Leadership, Education and Communication Department. Paper 55.
    [3] Baron, J.N. & Hannan, M.T. (2002). Organizational blueprints for success in high-tech starups: Lessons from the Stanford project on emerging companies. California Management Review, 44(3), 8-36.
    [4] Baron, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the emotional quotient inventory. In R. Baron & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), The handbook of emotional intelligence San Franciso: Jossey-Bass.
    [5] Baron, R.A. & Markman, G.D. (2000). Beyond social capital: How social skills can enhance entrepreneur’s success. Academy of Management Executive, 1(1-2), 167-182.
    [6] Baron, R.A. & Markman, G.D. (2003). Beyond social capital: the role of entrepreneurs’ social competence in their financial success. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(1), 41-60.
    [7] Baron, R.A. & Tang, J. (2008). Entrepreneurs’ social skills and new venture performance: Mediating mechanisms and cultural generality. Journal of Management, 35(2), 282-306.
    [8]Baron, R.A. (2004). Potential benefits of the cognitive perspective: Expanding entrepreneurship’s array of conceptual tools. Journal of Business Venturing, 19, 169-172.
    [9] Baron, R.A. (2008). The role of affect in the entrepreneurial process. Academy of Management Review, 33, 328-340.
    [10] Baum, J.R. & Locke, E.A. (2004). The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skill, and motivation to subsequent venture growth. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), 587-598.
    [11] Bharwaney, G., Baron, R. & Mackinlay, A. (2011). EQ and the bottom line. UK: Ei World.
    [12] Brush, C.G. & Vandorwerf, P. (1992). A comparison of methods and sources of obtaining estimates of new venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 7, 157-170.
    [13] Chandler, G. & Hanks, S. (1993). Measuring the performance of emerging business: A validation study. Journal of Business Venturing, 8, 391-408.
    [14] Cialdini, R. B. (2000). Influence: Science and practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    [15] Combs, J.G., Grook, T.R. & Shook, C.L. (2005). The dimensionality of organizational performance and its implications for strategic management research. In D.J. Ketcha & D.D. Bergh (Eds.), Research methodology in strategic management (Pp. 259-286). San Diego, CA: Elsevier.
    [16] Cooper, A.C. & Artz, K.W. (1995). Determinants of satisfaction for entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 10, 439-457.
    [17] Cross, B. & Travaglione, A. (2003). The untold story: Is the entrepreneur of the 21st century defined by emotional intelligence? The International Journal of Organization Analysis, 11(3), 221-228.
    [18] Ferris, G. R., Treadway, D C., Kolodinsky,R. W., Hochwarter,W. A., Kacmar, C. J., Douglas, C., et al. (2005). Development and validation of the political skill inventory. Journal of Management, 31(1), 126-152.
    [19] Foe, M.D., Elfenbein, H. A., Tan, H. H., & Aik, V. C. (2004). Emotional intelligence and negotiation: the tension between creating and claiming value. International Journal of Conflict Management, 1(5), 411-429.
    [20] Foo, M.D. (2011). Emotions and entrepreneurial opportunity evaluation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35, 375-393.
    [21] Fulmer, I.S., & Bany, B. (2004). The smart negotiator: Cognitive ability and emotional intelligence in negotiation. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 15(3), 245-272.
    [22] Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bontam Books.
    [23] Goleman, D. (2005). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantom Bones.
    [24] Goleman, D., Boyatis, R.E. & Mckee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: Realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston: Haward Business School Press.
    [25] Goleman, D., Boyazis, R.E. & Mckee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: Realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    [26] Graham, M. E., Murray, B. & Amuso, L. (2002). Stock related rewards, social identity, and the attraction and retention of employees in entrepreneurial SMEs. In J. Katz & Welbourne, T. (Eds.), Managing people in entrepreneurial organizations (107-145). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
    [27] Gupta, A.K. & Gorindarajan, V. (1984). Business unit strategy, managerial characteristics, and business unit effectiveness at strategy implementation. Academy of Management Journal, 27, 25-41.
    [28] Harris, K.J., Kacmar, K.M., Zivnuska, S. & Shaw, J.D. (2007). The impact of political skill on impression management effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 278-285.
    [29] Hughes, M., Patterson, L.B. & Terrell, J.B. (2005). Emotional Intelligence in Action. San Francisco,CA: Pfeiffer.
    [30] Humphrey, N., Curran, A., Morris, E., Farrell, P. & Woods, K. (2007). Emotional intelligence and education: A critical review. Educational Psychology, 27, 235-254.
    [31] Janghorabanian, A. (2009). Forecast entrepreneurial behaviour base on organizational support and emotional intelligence. Industrial Entrepreneurship, 4:3-9.
    [32] Javadi, M.H., Mehrabi, J., Jamkahaneh, H.B. & Samagoooi, B. (2012). Studying the impact of emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence on organizational entrepreneurship. Austrian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 6(9), 378-384.
    [33] Kacmar, K.M., Carlon, D. S., & Bratton, V. K. (2004). Situational factors as antecedents of ingratiatory behaviours in organizational settings. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 65(2), 309-331.
    [34] Kafetsios, K. & Zampetakis, L.A. (2008). Emotional intelligence and job satisfaction: Testing the mediatory role of positive and negative affect at work. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 712-722.
    [35] Mahmood, G.S., Samaneh, J. & Afeteh, A.M. (2012). Analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and entrepreneurship. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 11(5), 677-689.
    [36] Mayer, J. D., Roberts, R. D. & Barsade, S. G. (2008). Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology 59, 507-536.
    [37] Mayer, J., D., Salovey, P. & Caruso, D. R. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications. Psychological Inquiry 15, 197-215.
    [38] Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P. & Caruso, D.R. (2000). Emotional intelligence as zeitgeist, as personality, and as a mental ability. In J.D.A. Parker (Ed.), The handbook of emotional intelligence. New York: Josey-Bass.
    [39] Mayer,J.D. & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In Salovey, P. and Slugter (Eds). Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Emotional implications. New York: Basic Books.
    [40] Murphy, G. B. & Callaway, S. K. (2004). Doing well and happy about? Explaining variance in entrepreneurs’ stated satisfaction with performance. New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, 7, 15-26.
    [41] Naseer, Z., Chisti, S., Rahman, F. & Jumani, N.B. (2011). Impact of emotional intelligence on team performance in higher education institutes. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 3(1), 30-46.
    [42] Piperopoulos, P. (2010). Tacit knowledge and emotional intelligence: The ‘intangible’ values of SMEs. Strategic Change, 19, 125-139.
    [43] Rafiq, M., Naseer, Z. & Ali, B. (2011). Impact of emotional intelligence on organizational learning capability. International Journal of Academic Research, 3(4), 321-325.
    [44] Reijonen, H. (2008). Understanding the small business owner: What they really aim at and how this relates to firm performance. Management Research News, 31(8) 616-629.
    [45] Riggio, R.E. (2010). Trait emotional intelligence theory. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3, 136-139.
    [46] Robbins, S.P. (2005). Organizational Behaviour. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice-Hall Inc.
    [47] Sapienza, H.J., Smith, K.G. & Gannon, M.J. (1998). Using subjective evaluations of performance in small business research. American Journal of Small Business, 13, 45-53.
    [48] Sarwoko, E., Armanu, S. & Hadikidjoojo, D. (2013). Entrepreneurial characteristics and competency as determinants of business performance in SMEs. International Organization of Scientific Research Journal of Business and Management, 7(3), 31-38.
    [49] Schuttle, N. S., Schuettpelz, E. & Malouff, J. M. (2000). Emotional intelligence and task performance. Imagination, Cognition and Personal, 20(4), 347-354.
    [50] Shimazu, A., Shimazu, M. & Odahara, T. (2004). Job control and social support as coping responses in job satisfaction. Psychological Reports, 94(2), 449-456.
    [51] Simpson, M., Tuck, N. & Bellamy, S. (2004). Small business success factor: The role of education and training. Education and Training, 46(8-9), 481-491.
    [52] Singh, S.K. (2007). Role of emotional intelligence in organizational learning: An empirical study. Singapore Management Review, 29(2), 55-74.
    [53] Stemberg, R. J. (2004). Successful intelligence as a basis for entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2), 189-201.
    [54] Sy, T., Tram, S. & O’Hara, L. A. (2006). Relation of employee and manager emotional intelligence to job satisfaction and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior 68, 461-473.
    [55] Walker, E.A. & Brown, A. (2004). What success factors are important to small business owners? International Small Business Journal, 22, 577-594.
    [56] Wong, C. S. & Law, K. S. (2002). Development of an emotional intelligence instrument and an investigation of its relationship with leader and follower performance and attitudes. Leadership Quarterly, 13, 243-274.
    [57] Zahra, S. A., Neubaum, D. O. & El-Hagrassey, G. M. (2002). Competitive analysis and new venture performance: Understanding the impact of strategic uncertainty and venture origin. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 2, 27.
    [58] Zakarevious, P. & Zuperka, A. (2010). Expression of emotional intelligence development of students entrepreneurship. Economics and Management, 1822-6515.
    [59] Zhou, J. & George, J.M. (2003). Awakening employee creativity: The role of leader emotional intelligence. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 545-568.
    [60]Zintz, A. (2013). Strategic leadership resources. Retrieved from
    http://www.strategicleadershipresource.com on February 9, 2014.

Implementation of Procurement planning in Parastatal Organizations: A Case Study of Tanzania Postal Bank Head Quarters in Dar-es-salaam
Authors :- Frida Johnson Brahim, Othman Abada and Augustine Muhindo
Keywords :- Implementation, Parastatal, planning, Strategies, procurement
Published Online :- 17 June 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    This research paper is concerned towards implementing procurement planning in Parastatal organizations. The study was conducted at the Tanzania Postal Bank headquarters in Dar-es-salaam. The research used a descriptive statistics to analyze the strategic role in the improvement of public services of procurement planning. A sample of 32 respondents was picked from 146 user departments and Procurement Management Unit from the Tanzania Postal Bank. The results shows that implementation of procurement planning in Parastatal organizations depends more on the cooperation between the Procurement Management Unit and user departments. This has to go hand in hand with the adherence to the public procurement Act No.21 of 2004 and public procurement regulations of 2005. The results also have shown that preparation of procurement planning is a very important process to achieve the targets for organizations. This research, though limited by inadequate availability of empirical literature particularly those discussing implementation of procurement planning in Parastatal organizations. The limitation however does not substantially reduce the generalizations of the results. The findings from this study shall be of practical use to Tanzania Postal Bank.
  • View References

    [1] Basheka B. (2006).Deviation from Applicable Procurement and Disposals Methods-Procurement News paper (Issue No.3 September.)
    [2] Country-Procurement Assessment Report-Tanzania (2003)
    [3] Country Procurement Assessment Report-Croatia (2004).
    [4] Dobler and Burt, (1996).Purchasing and supply Management (6th Edition), McGraw Hill Companies Inc.
    [5] James, U.V. (2004).Public Policy and the African Environment: An Examination of the Theory and practice of the planning process of the continent. In Kalu, A.K. (Ed.) Agenda setting and Public Policy in Africa; Ashagte. England
    [6] Mangesho P.E (2003) Research Paper on “The Impact of Tendering System on Effectiveness and Efficient Competitive Procurement in Tanzania Public Institutions.”
    [7] Masaburi M (2006) Research Paper on “Assessment of Procurement Planning in Public.”
    [8] Masaburi D.J (2006), A Paper presented at the Workshop on Strategic Procurement planning held at Chanika IPS College.
    [9] Milassy H.I. (2005).Research Paper on “Evaluation of Procurement Procedures in Local Government Authorities.”
    [10] Mlinga, R. (2006) “Effectiveness of Procurement Planning “, A Paper presented at the Annual Workshop for the secretaries of Tender Boards held at Paradise Resort-Bagamoyo.
    [11] Mlinga, R. (2006) “Tanzania Procurement Journal “ Vol No.03 March
    [12] The Public Finance Act and Regulations, (2001). Government Press United Republic of Tanzania.
    [13] The Public Procurement Act, (2001). Government Press United Republic of Tanzania.
    [14] The Public Procurement Act, (2004). Government Press United Republic of Tanzania.
    [15] The Public Procurement Regulations, ( 2005) Government Press United Republic of Tanzania
    [16] The Warioba Corruption Commission Report (1996).

The Impact of Leadership Style on Corporate Innovation: Survey from Telecommunication Industry
Authors :- Ali Yassin Sheikh Ali and Ibrahim Hassan Ibrahim
Keywords :- Corporate Innovation, Leadership Style, Somalia, Telecommunication Industry.
Published Online :- 27 June 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    Corporate Innovation has become a prime source of succeeding and sustaining a competitive advantage in the telecommunication industry. While a large research body addresses the question of corporate innovation projects, a firm´s overall innovation with relation to the corporate leadership has received much less attention. Should innovations be driven by corporate directors and a close relation to leadership style?. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of leadership styles on corporate innovation in telecommunication industry in Somalia. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the relationship between leadership styles and corporate innovation dimensions among Telecommunication companies in Mogadishu-Somalia. Particularly, the study investigates the effect of 1) Transactional Leadership Style, 2) Transformational leadership Style; and 3) Laissez-faire leadership style on corporate innovation. By using purposive sampling, 142 top and supervisory level managers from telecommunication industry in Somalia participated in the study. The findings indicate that Transformational leadership (β= .485, t= 6.571, p<.001) , transactional leadership style (β=.262, t= 3.263, p<.001) and Laizes Faire leadership styles (β= .463, t= 6.211, p<.001) were found to have statistically significant and positive effect on firm innovation.
  • View References

    [1] Avolio, B. J., & Bass, B. M. (1998). You can drag a horse to water but you can’t make it drink unless it is thirsty. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 5(1), 4-17.
    [2] Abdi, A. M., & Ali, A. Y. S. (2013). Innovation and business performance in telecommunication industry
    in Sub-Saharan African context: case of Somalia; Asian journal of management sciences & education, 2(4)
    [3] Becheikh, N., Landry, R., & Amara, N. (2006); Lessons from innovation empirical studies in the manufacturing sector: A systematic review of the literature from 1993–2003. Technovation, 26(5), 644-664.
    [4] Bučiūnienė, I., & Škudienė, V. (2008); Impact of leadership styles on employees’ organizational commitment in Lithuanian manufacturing companies. South East European Journal of Economics and Business, 3(2), 57-66.
    [5] Burns IM. Leadership. New York, NY: Harper and Row, 1978
    [6] Denti and Sven Hemlin (2012), leadership and innovation in organizations: a systematic review of factors that mediate or moderate the relationship; international journal of innovation management; vol. 16, no. 3: DOI: 10.1142/S1363919612400075.
    [7] Denti, L. (2011). Leadership and Innovation: How and when do Leaders Influence Innovation in R&D Teams; University of Gothenburg Licentiate in Psychology.
    [8] Fiedler, F. E. (1967); A theory of leadership effectiveness.
    [9] Hayward, Q., Goss, M., & Tolmay, R. (2004); The relationship between transformational and transactional leadership and employee commitment. Grahamstown, Rhodes University: Business Report.
    [10] Hemlin, S. (2006). Creative knowledge environments for research groups in biotechnology: The influence of leadership and organizational support in universities and business companies. Scientometrics, 67, 121–142
    [11] Hemlin, S., Allwood, C. M., & Martin, B. R. (2008). Creative knowledge environments. Creativity Research Journal, 20, 196–210.
    [12] Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. H. (1993). Management of organizational behavior: Utilizing human resources . Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    [13] Hartley, J., & Fletcher, C. (2008). Leadership with political awareness: Leadership across diverse interests inside and outside the organization.
    [14] Huberts, L. W., Kaptein, M., & Lasthuizen, K. (2007) A study of the impact of three leadership styles on integrity vioations committed by police officers. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management , 30 (4), 587-607.
    [15] Hunter, S. T., Bedell, K. E., & Mumford, M. D. (2007). Climate for creativity: A quantitative review. Creativity Research Journal, 19, 69–90.
    [16] Heller, F. A., & Yukl, G. (1969), Participation, managerial decision-making and situational variables, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4(3), 227-241.
    [17] Kent, A., & Chelladurai, P. (2001). Perceived Transformational Leadership, Organizational Commitment, and Citizenship Behavior: A Case Study in Intercollegiate Athletics. Journal of sport management, 15(2).
    [18] Korman, A. K. (1966). “Consideration,”“Initiating Structure,” and Organizational Criteria?a Review, Personnel Psychology, 19(4), 349-361.
    [19] Kutner, M. H., Nachtsheim, C., & Neter, J. (2004)., Applied linear regression models. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
    [20] Long, C. S., & Thean, L. Y. (2011). Relationship Between Leadership Style, Job Satisfaction and Employees’ Turnover Intention: A Literature Review. Research Journal of business management, 5(3).
    [21] Mumford, MD and SB Gustafson (1988). Creativity syndrome: Integration, application, and innovation. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 27–43.
    [22] OECD (2005). Oslo Manual. Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data (3rd edn.), Paris: OECD.
    [23] Quinn, R.E. (1988) Beyond Rational Management . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    [24] Shalley, C.E and LL Gilson (2004). What leaders need to know: A review of social and contextual factors that can foster or hinder creativity, the Leadership Quarterly, 15, 33–53.
    [25] Subramanian and Nilakanta, 1996. Organizational innovation in European firms: a critical overview of the survey evidence. In: Archibugi, D., Lundvall, B. (Eds.), The Globalizing Learning Economy. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, pp. 195–219.
    [26] Wang, F. J., & Chich-Jen, S. T. Mei-Ling,(2010), Effect of Leadership Style on Organizational Performance as Viewed From Human Resource Management Strategy. African Journal of Business Management, 4(18), 3924-3936.

Sustainable Economic Growth as a Function of Corruption, Oil Dependence, Poverty, and Inequality
Authors :- Antonio E. Morales-Pita and Daniel Flynn
Keywords :- Nigeria, Corruption, Oil Dependence, Poverty, Income Inequality
Published Online :- 15 July 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    This paper analyzes the future prospects in economic growth in Nigeria in the context of the negative impact of interrelated issues, such as corruption, oil dependence, poverty, and income inequality. Since 2000, the Nigerian economy has experienced strong growth and has been championed by many economists as a potential breakout nation. The authors argue that the idea of a Nigerian economic success story is premature. A heavy dependence on oil puts the economy in a potentially risky position while corruption prevents trickle down of economic growth and thus leads to increased poverty and income inequality. The conclusion summarizes the argument that the continued prevalence of the four issues mentioned above indicate that the current level of growth is unsustainable in the future.
  • View References

    [1] Agbiboa, Daniel E. (2012). Between Corruption and Development: The Political Economy of State Robbery in Nigeria. Journal of Business Ethics 108: 325-345.
    [2] Aigbokan, Ben E. (2008). Growth, Inequality and Poverty in Nigeria. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa: Discussion Paper 3.
    [3] BBC News (2012 a) Nigeria’s President Jonathan ‘must act over fuel scam. May 28 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-18238973
    [4] BBC News (2012 b) Nigerians living in poverty rise to nearly 61%. February 13. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-17015873
    [5] CIA World Factbook. (2013). Nigeria. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/geos/ni.html
    [6] Eboh, Camillus, and Tim Cocks (2013). Nigeria to save less oil money, budget deficit falls. Reuters, March 7. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2013/03/07/nigeria-budget-idUKL6N0BZ94J20130307.
    [7] Economist Intelligence Unit (2013 a). Democracy index 2012: Democracy at a standstill. The Economist, Accessed November 1 https:// portoncv.gov.cv/dhub/porton.por _global.open_file?pdoc_id=1034.
    [8] Economist Intelligence Unit (2013 b). Nigeria. The Economist, Accessed November 1. http://country.eiu.com.ezproxy1.lib.depaul.edu/article.aspx?articleid=1571050741&Country=Nigeria&topic=Summary&subtopic=Fact%20sheet
    [9] Ikelegbe, Augustine (2006). The Economy of Conflict in the Oil Rich Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. African and Asian Studies 5: 23-55.
    [10] Kashi, David (2013). China is looking to Nigeria for crude oil and has been trying to win favor with the nation by investing in the West African country. International Business Times, July 12. http://www.ibtimes.com/china-looking-nigeria-crude-oil-has-been-trying-win-favor-nation-investingwest-
    african-country
    [11] Madunagu, Edwin (1982). Nigeria: The economy and the people. London: New Beacon.
    [12] Office of the United States Trade Representative (2013). Nigeria.
    http://www.ustr.gov/countries-regions/africa/west-africa/nigeria
    [13] Oshikoya, Temitope (2008). Nigeria in the Global Economy Business Economics 43: 31-43.
    [14] Rice, Xan (2013). Nigeria economy policy seeks added value. Financial Times, October 10. http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/69bf600a-2440-11e3-a8f7-00144feab7de.html#axzz2jmh8SrNg
    [15] Ross, Will (2012). Nigeria’s booming illegal oil refineries. BBC News, July 26. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-18973637
    [16] Sharma, Ruchir (2012). Breakout Nations. New York: Norton.
    [17] Trading Economics (2013). “Nigeria Economic Indicators.”
    http://www.tradingeconomics.com/nigeria/indicators
    [18] Transparency International (2013) . Corruption Perceptions Index.
    http://www.transparency.org/research/cpi/overview
    [19] Umar, Gunu, and Kilishi A. Abdulhakeem (2010). Oil Price Shocks and the Nigeria Economy: A Variance Autoregressive (VAR) Model.” International Journal of Business and Management 5: 39-49.
    [20] UNDP (2013). The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Human Development Report 2013. http://hdrstats.undp.org/images/explanations/NGA.pdf
    [21] World DataBank. 2013. Nigeria. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/nigeria

Training and Manpower Development in Public Research and Development Organizations
Authors :- Adeleye, A, Dickson- Adegbite, Stephen A. and Aderemi, Helen O.
Keywords :- Manpower Development, Training, , Organization, Research and Development
Published Online :- 15 July 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    The study examined the policies, effectiveness and the constraints to training and manpower development (TMD) in public research and development (R&D) organizations in southwest Nigeria for enhanced performance. Data from a study of twenty-two (22) public R&D organizations in the study area was used in this paper. Findings showed that Public R&D has high scientific R&D content and requires availability of highly qualified manpower who could handle very sophisticated equipment and processes. Funding and training policy decision posed major constraints to TMD. The study concluded that while some may argue that government’s development plan should map the direction of training and research. It is equally important that every stakeholder including management be involved in training policy decision. The study recommended the development of a proactive approach to TMD in Nigeria.
  • View References

    [1] OECD (1970). (Organization of Economic Development and Cooperation): The measurement of
    scientific and technical activities. OECD publications, 75775 Paris Cedex 16 France
    [2] Jain R. K.; Triandis .C. and Weick C. W. (2010). Managing Research, Development and Innovation: Managing the Unmanageable – 3rd ed.p7. John Wiley and Sons Inc.
    [3] Charpie, R. A (1970). Technological innovation and the international economy’ in Goldsmit, M. (Ed) Technological Innovation and the Economy. London: Wiley- Interscience.
    [4] Hay (1968).
    [5] Intrahealth (2002). Performance Improvement Stages, Steps and Tools. The Prime II Project conducted for U.S Agency for International Development (USAID)
    [6] Jyoti D.K.B. and Deshmukh S. G. (2006). Balanced Scorecard for Performance Evaluation of R&D Organisations. A conceptual model. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. Vol 65 pp879-886
    [7] Pye, Lucian W.(1985). Asian Power and Politics – The Cultural Dimensions of Authority, Harvard University Press.
    [8] Mahapatro B. B.(2010). Human Resource Management. 1st ed. New Age International (P) Limited
    [9] Alos, A . (2002). Building capabilities for Delivery of objectives. Putting people first in PUNCH newspaper, motivating employees to achieve organizational objectives. Wednesday, April 2, 2003, P. 25
    [10] Bias, D. (1988). “Cost- Effectiveness of training in Developing countries”. International Labour Review, vol, 127, No. 3 , 1988 PP 355-359
    [11] Hinrichs J. (1976). “Personnel Training”. In: M.D Dunnette (ed) Handbook of Industrial and organizational Psychology, Chicago, Rand MC Nally, 1976, p. 832
    [12] Wadler L (1970). Development Human Resources; Houston, Texas, Gulf Publishing Company
    [13] Bienuvenu B.J(1969). New priorities in training, New York, American Management Association.
    [14] Glueck W.F. (1983). Personnel: A Diagnostic Approach, Plano, Texas, p413 cit.In. George t. Milkoric Business Publication Inc., p437
    [15] Maduabum C.(1992). “Identification of Training Needs” in: A.d Yahaya and C. I Akinyele (ed) Op cit p184
    [16] McGehee W. and Thayer P. (1961). Training for Business and Industry. New York, John Willey and Sons.
    [17] Zinovieff M. A. (2008). Review and Analysis of Training Impact Evaluation Methods, and Proposed Measures to Support a United Nations System Fellowships Evaluation Framework. Prepared for the WHO’s Department of Human Resources for Health on behalf of the UN Task Force on Impact Assessment of Fellowships with the support of Arie Rotem. Geneva
    [18] Burgoyne J. (1989). “creating the managerial portfolio: Building on competency Approaches to management Development”. Management Education and Development. 20(1), pp. 56-61
    [19] Buchaman; D. (1978) “Gaining Managerial skill through Academic Research work”, Journal of the Institute of Personnel Management’, 10(12), pp 45-48.
    [20] Levinson H. (1962). Men, Management and Mental Health. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
    [21] Tracey W. B (1977). “Training Evaluation: Another Perspective”, Journal of the Institute of Personnel Management, 9(3), p28 W.B Tracey; Op. cit. p29
    [22] Goldstein, I. L. (1993). Training in organizations: Needs assessment, development, and evaluation (3rd ed). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
    [23] Bellman H. and Remmers H.H. (1958). “Evaluating the results or training, Journal of training directors, 12, pp. 28-33”, Cited in w. P. clueck; Op. cit. p436
    [24] Handblin A.C (1970). Evaluation of training. “Industrial training international, 11, pp 33-36
    [25]Ogbimi, F.E. (2000), Establishing the relevant framework for research activities in Nigeria. Unpublished lecture material, Technology Planning and Development Unit, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Study on Competitive Power of the County Economy on the Basis of Factor Analysis–A Case Study of Shandong Province
Authors :- Xianyin Lee, Jiaojiao Guo and Wenchao Zuo
Keywords :- County Economy, Competitive Power, Factor Analysis, Case Study
Published Online :- 26 July 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    County economy is the important component, as well as the most basic regional unit of national economy. By the comprehensive evaluation of the competitiveness of county economy, we would find the variation law of the county economy competitiveness, which is significant to improve the competitiveness of county economy and promote the overall development of the national economy. Using factor analysis and principal component analysis method, this paper established the comprehensive evaluation system of the county economic competitiveness, and extracted four common factors which have a decisive influence on the development of competitiveness of county economy, then evaluated the competitiveness of ninety-one county economy in Shandong province. Finally, this paper also puts forward the suggestions on county economic development of Shandong province.
  • View References

    [1] Hu Huajiang. The Realization of Leapfrog Development of Underdeveloped Areas Through Adjusting Industrial Structure[J]. Rural Economy, 2004(5) : 35-37.
    [2] He Kang. Issues on the Reform and Development of the County Economy[J]. Issues in Agricultural Economy, 1991(1) : 7-13.
    [3] Chen Jianbo. Non-agricultural Economy Being the Important Pillar in the Development of County Economy[M]. Economic Daily, 2002O10O22.
    [4] Wang Linling. Competitive Power Evaluation of the County Economy in Ningxia Province and Its Empirical Study[J]. Social Sciences in Ningxia, 2011(3) : 31-34.
    [5] Xia Yongjiu, Zhu Xigang, Chu Jinlong. Evolvement of Spatial Pattern of County Economic Comprehensive Competitiveness in Anhui Province Based on ESDA[J]. Economic Geography, 2011, 31(9) : 1427-1431.
    [6] Liu Tao. Study on Coordinated Development Pattern of County Economy and Society in Shandong Province and the Countermeasure[J]. China Population Resources and Environment, 2011, 21(11) : 169-174.
    [7] Wang Fengbo, Fan Zhonghong. Practical Study of Sustainable Development of County Economy —– A Case Study of Faku[J]. Social Science Journal, 2011(4) : 113-115.
    [8] Long Zhihe, Chen Fang, Lin Guangpin. Spatial Econometric Analysis of China’s Economic Growth Convergence Based on the County —– Level Panel Data[J]. Forum on Science and Technology in China, 2012(1) : 102-108
    [9] Chen Fang, Long Zhihe, Lin Guangping. An Empirical Study on Economic Disparity and Convergence Aross China’s Counties[J]. Journal of Yunnan University of Finance and Economics, 20011(6) : 49-55.
    [10] Ren Jiaqiang, Dong Linying, Wang Jingkuan, Li Shuangyi. Study on Spatial Variability of Intra-County Economies in Liaoning Province Based on Spatial Statistical Analysis[J]. Economic Geography, 2010, 30(9) : 1435-1439.
    [11] Cao Fangdong, Wu Jiang, Xu Min. Research on Spatial Disparity of Economy at County Level Based on the Spatial Econometrics Model —– A Case Study of Jiangsu Province. Areal Research and Development, 2010,29(6) : 26-28.
    [12] Xiang Shujian, Zheng Ruikun, Gao Yuanxing. Study on the Quality Evaluation Index System of County Economy Growth from the perspective of Circular Economy —– A Case of Jiangyin in Jiangsu Province[J]. Journal of Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, 2011(1) : 9-15.
    [13] Linlin, Qin Wanshun. Comparison of Areas on the County Economic Development —– On the Basis of DEA Method[J]. Social Science Research, 2009(6): 23-27.
    [14] Gu Ping, Xing Xuanxi. Study on the Connotation of Sustainable “Development and Quality” in County Industrial Economy. Inquiry into Economic Issues, 2007(12) : 39-44.

The Impact of Job Characteristics on Burnout; The Mediating Role of Work Family Conflict and the Moderating Role of Job Satisfaction
Authors :- Gönül Kaya Özbağ and Gökçe Çiçek Ceyhun
Keywords :- Job Characteristics, Job Satisfaction, Work Family Conflict, Burnout
Published Online :- 26 July 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    The aim of this study is to test the relationships among job characteristics (skill variety, task significance, task identity, autonomy and feedback), job satisfaction, work family conflict (WFC) and burnout (exhaustion, personal accomplishment and cynicism). Various sets of factors including organizational characteristics, job characteristics, and individual characteristics are investigated in order to find out the root causes of job burnout. However, different from other studies, we investigated the mediating role of work family conflict and the moderating role of job satisfaction in explaining the relationship between job characteristics and burnout. The proposed hypotheses were tested by hierarchical regression analysis by means of data from 161 employees. The results indicated that WFC partially mediated the relationship between job characteristics and burnout.In addition, job satisfaction was found to moderate the relationship between job characteristics and burnout in such a way that the relationship is weaker for employees with high levels of job satisfaction. These empirical findings have important implications for human resource managers and organizational behavior researchers who are interested in how to reduce burnout that is likely to reduce the organization’s productivity and threaten its competitiveness in the long run.
  • View References

    [1] Abu-Bader, S.H. (2000) ‘Work Satisfaction, Burnout, and Turnover among Social Workers in Israel: A Causal Diagram,’ International Journal of Social Welfare 9(3): pp. 191–200.
    [2] Armon, G., Shirom, A., Shapira, I., & Melamed, S. (2008). “On the nature of burnout–insomnia relationships: A prospective study of employed adults,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research,65, pp. 5–12.
    [3] Becherer, Richard C, Fred W. Morgan, and Lawrence M. Richard (1982), “The Job Characteristics of Industrial Salespersons: Relationship to Motivation and Satisfaction,” Joumal of Marketing, 46 (Fall), pp.125-35.
    [4] Boles, J. S., Howard, W. G. & Donofrio, H. H. (2001). “An Investigation into the Inter-relationships of Work-family conflict, Family-work conflict and Work satisfaction,”Journal of Managerial Issues, 13(3), pp. 376 -390.
    [5] Bodur, S. (2002), “Job Satisfaction of Healthcare Staff Employed at Health Centers in Turkey,”Occupational Medicine, London, Vol. 52, pp. 353-355.
    [6] Boles, J. S., Johnston, M. W., Hair, J. S., & Jr. (1997). “Role Stress, Personal Life Stress, and Symptoms of Life Strains: An Examination of the Moderating Role of Sense of Competence,” The Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 17(1), 17-28.
    [7] Brewer, E.W. &Shapard, L. (2004). “Employee Burnout: A Meta-Analysis Of The Relationship Between Age Or Years Of Experience, “Human Resource Development Review, 3(2): pp. 102–123.
    [8] Burke, R. J. and Deszca, E. (1986). “Correlates Of Psychological Burnout Phases Among Police Officers,” Human Relations, 39,pp. 487–502.
    [9] Burke, R.J. (1988)“Some Antecedents and Consequences of Work-family Conflict.” Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 3, 287-302.
    [10] Brown, Steven P. and Robert A. Peterson (1993), “Antecedents and Consequences of Salesperson Job Satisfaction: Meta-Analysis and Assessment of Casual Effects,” Journal of Marketing Research,30 (February), pp. 63-77.
    [11] Cheuk, W.H, Wong, K.S. & Rosen, S. (1994). “The Effects Of Spurning And Social Support On Teacher Burnout,”Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 9(4), pp. 657-664.
    [12] Cordes, C.L. & Dougherty, T.W. (1993). “A Review And An Integration Of Research On Job Burnout,” Academy of Management Review, 18(4): 621–656.
    [13] Chen Hong, Wu Peng, and Wei, (2012). “New Perspectıve On Job Burnout: Exploring The Root Cause Beyond General Antecedents Analysis,” Psychological Reports, 110, 3, pp. 801-819.
    [14] Chess (1984). “Job Satisfaction, Burnout, and Turnover: A National Study,” Social Work 29(5): pp.448–53.
    [15] Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E., & Byrne, Z. S. (2003). “The Relationship Of Emotional Exhaustion To Work Attitudes, Job Performance, And Organizational Citizenship Behaviours,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, pp. 160–169.
    [16] Davidson, T., & Stobbeleir, K. D., “The Power Of The Feedback Environment In Stimulating Creative Performance: The Role Of Task Autonomy And Self-Concordance”. Vlerick Working Paper Series 2011/09.
    [17] Eric G. Lambert, Nancy L. Hogan, Kelly Cheeseman Dial, Shanhe Jiang and Mahfuzul I. Khondaker (2012).” Is the Job Burning Me out an Exploratory Test of the Job Characteristics Model on the Emotional Burnout of Prison Staff,“The Prison Journal, 92(1) pp. 3–23.
    [18] Evans, M.G., Kiggundu, M.U., & House, R.J., (1979). “A Partial Test and Extension of the JobFried, Y. and Ferris, G. R. (1986). ‘The dimensionality of job characteristics: Some neglected issues,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, pp. 419-426.
    [19] Fried Y, Ferris GR, (1987), “The Validity Of The Job Characteristics Model: A Review And Meta-Analysis, “Personnel Psychology, 40, pp. 287-322.
    [20] Ford, M. T., Heinen, B. A., & Langkamer, K. L. (2007). „Work And Family Satisfaction And Conflict: A Meta-Analysis Of Cross-Domain Relations,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, pp. 57-80.
    [21] Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Cooper, M. L. (1992). “Antecedents And Outcomes Of Work Family Onflict: Testing A Model Of The Work-Family Interface, “Journal of Applied Psychology, 77: 65-78.
    [22] Burke, R. J., & Greenglass, E. R. (1999). “Work-Life Congruence And Work-Life Concerns Among Nursing Staff,” Canadian Journal of Nursing Leadership, 12(2), 21-29.
    [23] Geurts, S. A. E., & Demerouti, E. (2003). “Work/Non-Work Interface: A Review Of Theories And findings. In M. J. Schabracq, J. A. M. Winnubst, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.),” The Handbook Of Work And Health Psychology, pp. 279 –312. Chichester, England: Wiley.
    [24] Janssen, P.M., Peeters, M.C.A., De Jonge, J., Houkes, I. & Tummers, G.E.R. (2004). “Specific Relationships Between Job Demands, Job Resources And Psychological Outcomes And The Mediating Role Of Negative Work-Home Interference,” Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 65, 411–429.
    [25] Goldstein, D. K. 1989. “The Effects of Task Differences on the Work Satisfaction, Job Characteristics,
    and Role Perceptions of Programmer/Analysts,” Journal of Management Information Systems (6,1), pp. 41-57.
    [26] Glick, W. H., Jenkins, G. D., Jr. and Gupta, N. (1986). “Method versus substance: How strong areunderlying relationships between job characteristics and attitudinal outcomes,” Academy of Management Journal, 29, 441-464.
    [27] Hackman, J. R., and Oldham, G. R.(1974). “The Job Diagnostic Survey: An Instrument for the Diagnosis of Jobs and the Evaluation of Job Redesign Projects,” Report No. 4, Yale University, Department of Administration Science, New Haven, CT.Hackman, J. R., and Oldham, G. R. 1980. Work Redesign, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    [28] Hackman, J.R., Oldham, G.R. (1975). “Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 159-170.
    [29] Hackman, J.R., and Oldham, G.R. (1976), “Motivation through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory,” Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, 16, pp. 250– 279.
    [30] Hackman, J.R., Oldham, G.R. (1980). “Work redesign,” Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    [31] Nikolaos T. and Athanasois K. (1994), “Multivariate Relationship and Discriminant Validity between Job Satisfaction and Burnout,” Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19.7, pp. 666–675.
    [32] Higgins, C., Duxbury, L. E. & Irving, R. H. (1992). “Work-Family Conflict In The Dual Career Family,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 51. 51-75.
    [33] Himle, D.P., S.D. Jayaratne and P.A. Thyness (1986) ‘Predictors of Job Satisfaction, Burnout and Turnover among Social Workers in Norway and the USA: A Cross-cultural Study’, International Social Work 29(4): 323–34.
    [34] Hee, C. and Ling, F. (2011). “Strategies For Reducing Employee Turnover And Increasing Retention Rates Of Quantity Surveyors,” Construction Management and Economics, 29(10), 1059-1072.
    [35] Hunt, S. D., Chonko, L. B, & Wood, R. (1985). “Organizational Commitment and Marketing,”Journal of Marketing, 49:112-126.
    [36] Huang, W.-P.P. a.H.-H. (4 June, 2011). “ffects Of Promotion On Relationship Quality And Customer Loyalty In The Airline Industry: The Relationship Marketing Approach,”African Journal of Business
    Management, Vol.5 (11).
    [37] Iverson, R. D., Olean’s, M., & Erwin, P. J. (1998). “Affectivity, Organizational Stressors, And Absenteeism: A Causal Model Of Burnout And Its Consequences,”Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 52,1–23.
    [38] Jayaratne, S. and W.A. Chess (1984) “Job Satisfaction, Burnout, and Turnover: A National Study,” Social Work 29(5): pp. 448–53.
    [39] Jonge Jan De and Schaufeli Wilmar B., (1998). “Job Characteristics And Employee Well-Being: A Test Of Warr’s Vitamin Model In Health Care Workers Using Structural Equation Modelling,” Journal Of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 19, pp. 387-407.
    [40] Karatepe, O.M. & Karatepe, T. (2010). “Role Stress, Emotional Exhaustion, And Turnover Intentions: Does Organizational Tenure In Hotels Matter,” Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality and Tourism, 9(1), pp. 1–16.
    [41] Kossek. E. E., & Ozeki, C. (1998). “Work- Family Conflict, Policies, And The Job-Life Satisfaction Relationship: A Review And Directions For Organizational Behavior/Human Resources Research.,”Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, pp. 139- 149.
    [42] Kim, H. & Stoner, M. (2008). “Burnout And Turnover Intention Among Social Workers: Effects Of Role Stress, Job Autonomy And Social Support,” Administration in SocialWork, 32(3), 5-25.
    [43] Lambert Susan J., (1991), “The Combined Effects Of Job And Family Characteristics On The Job Satisfaction, Job Involvement, And Intrinsic Motivation Of Men And Women Workers, “Journal Of Organizational Behaviour, Vol. 12, pp. 341-363.
    [44] Leiter. M. P. and Maslach, C. (1988), “ The Impact of Interpersonal Environment on Burnout and Organisational Commitment,” Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 12, pp. 123-144.
    [45] Lee, R. and Klein, A. R. (1982). ‘Structure Of The Job Diagnostic Survey For Public Sector Occupations,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 515-519.
    [46] Liao, Y S, (1998), “The Relationship Among Flexitime, Personal Attribute And Job Characteristics, Job Satisfaction, Performance- Take The Electronic Industry For Example,” Taipei: National Chengchi University.
    [47] Locke Edwin A. (1995). “The Micro-Analysis Of Job Satisfaction: Comments On Taber and Alliger,”Journal Of Organizational Behavior V: 16, pp.123-125.
    [48] Loher, B. T., Noe, R. A., Moeller, N. L. and Fitzgerald, M. P. (1985). “A Meta-Analysis Of The Relation Of Job Characteristics To Job Satisfaction,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, pp. 280-289.
    [49] Luthans, F. (1998), Organisational Behaviour, (8th Ed.), Irwin McGraw-Hill, Boston. Nikolas, T. and Athanasois, K. (1994), “Multivariate Relationship and Discriminant Validity between Job Satisfaction
    and Burnout,” Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19,7, pp. 666-675.
    [50] Maslach Christina, Schaufeli Wilmar B., Leiter Michael P. (2001). “Job burnout,” AnnualReview of Psychology, 52: 397–422.
    [51] Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). “The Measurement Of Experienced Burnout,” Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 99-113.
    [52] Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M.P. (1996). “Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual (3rd end.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    [53] Maslach, C. and Schaufeli, W.B. (1993), “Historical And Conceptual Development Of Burnout”, In Schaufeli, W.B., Maslach, C. And Marek, T. (Eds), Professional Burnout: Recent Developments In Theory And Research,” Taylor & Francis, Washington, DC, pp. 1-16.
    [54] Melamed, S., Shirom, A., & Froom, P. (2003, March). “Burnout And Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) In Israeli Workers,” Paper presented at the Work, Stress and Health Conference. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    [55] Melamed, Samuel; Shirom, Arie; Toker, Sharon; Berliner, Shlomo; Shapira, Itzhak, “Burnout and risk of cardiovascular disease: Evidence, possible causal paths, and promising research directions,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol 132(3), May 2006, pp. 327-353.
    [56] Michaels, C. E. & P. E Spector (1982). “Causes of Employee Turnover: A Test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand and Meglino Model,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, pp. 53-59.
    [57] Morris Michael G. and Venkatesh Viswanath, (2010). “Job Characteristics And Job Satisfaction: Understanding The Role Of Enterprise Resource Planning System Implementation,” MIS Quarterly Vol. 34 No. 1, pp. 143-16.
    [58] Morgeson, Frederick P. ; Delaney-Klinger, Kelly; Hemingway, Monica A. (2005), “The Importance of Job Autonomy, Cognitive Ability, and Job-Related Skill for Predicting Role Breadth and Job Performance,” Journal of Applied Psychology., Vol. 90 Issue 2, pp.399-406.
    [59] Nash, M.(1985). “Managing Organizational Performance,” Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.
    [60] Netemeyer, R.G., McMurrian, R. & Boles, J.S. (1996). “Development And Validation Of Work Family Conflict And Family Work Conflict Scales,”Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, pp. 400-410.
    [61] Niebrugge, K. M. (1994, March). “Burnout And Job Dissatisfaction Among School Psychologists In Illinois,”Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association of School Psychologists, Seattle, WA.
    [62] Oldham Greg R. And Hackman J. Rıchard (2010). “Commentary Not What It Was And Not What It Will Be: The Future Of Job Design Research, “ Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 31, pp. 463–479.
    [63] Pleck, J. H. (1977). “The Work-Family Role System. Social Problems,” 24, pp. 417-427.
    [64] Parasuraman, S. Purohit, Y. S., & Godshalk, V. M. (1996). “Work And Family Variables, Entrepreneurial Careersuccess And Psychological Well-Being,” Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 48,pp. 275–300.
    [65] Parker, P. A., & Kulik, J. A. (1995). ”Burnout, Selfand Supervisor-Related Job Performance, And Absenteeism Among Nurses,” Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 18, pp. 581–599.
    [66] Pokomey, J. J. Gilmore, D. C. and Beehr, T. A. (1980). ‘Job Diagnostic Survey Dimensions: Moderating Effect Of Growth Needs And Correspondence With Dimensions Of The Job Rating Form’, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, pp. 222-237.
    [67] Randall, M. &Scott, W. A. (1988). “Burnout, Job Satisfaction, And Job Performance,” Australian Psychologist, 23. pp. 335–347.
    [68] Ramaswami, S. N., Agarwal, S., & Bhargava, M. (1993). “Work A Lineation Of Marketing Employees: Influence Of Task, Supervisory And Organizational Structure Factors,”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 21, 179-193.
    [69] R.M. Baron, D.A. Kenny, (1986). “The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic and Statistical Considerations,”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, pp. 1173-1182.
    [70] Schaufeli, W. B., & Buunk, B. P. (2003). “Burnout: An Overview of 25 Years of Research and Theorizing. In Schabracq, M. J., Winnubst, J.” A. M., & Cooper, C. L. (Eds.),”The Handbook of Work and Health Psychology (pp. 383-425). Chichester: Wiley.
    [71] Schaufeli, W.B., Bakker, A.B., & Van Rhenen, W. (2009). “How Changes In Job Demands And Resources Predict Burnout, Work Engagement, And Sickness Absenteeism,” Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 30, 893–917.
    [72] Ramayah, T., Jantan, M., & Tadisina, S. K. (2001). “Job Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence For Alternatives To JDI,” 32 Annual Meeting of Decision Sciences Institute Conference, Track OB2, San Francisco: USA; Iverson et.al. 1998.
    [73] Tsigilis, N., Koustelios, A. & Togia, A. (2004). “Multivariate Relationship And Discriminant Validity Between Job Satisfaction And Burnout,”Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19 (7), 666-676.
    [74] Toker Sharon, Shirom Arie, Shapira Itzhak, Berliner Shlomo, Melamed Samuel, (2005). “The Association Between Burnout, Depression, Anxiety, and Inflammation Biomarkers: C-Reactive Protein and Fibrinogen in Men and Women,” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 344 –362.
    [75] Tiegs, R., Tetrick, L., & Fried, Y. (1992). “Growth Need Strength And Context Satisfactions As Moderators Of The Relations Of Thejob Characteristics Model,”Journal of Management, 18, pp. 575- 593.
    [76] Viswesvaran C, Sanchez JI, Fisher J. (1999). “The Role Of Social Support In The Process Of Work Stress: A Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Vocational Behaviour; 54, pp. 314–334.
    [77] Wall TD, Clegg CW, Jackson PR. (1978). “An Evaluation Of The Job Characteristics Model,”Journal of Occupational Psychology, 51, pp. 183-196.
    [78] Wilmar B. Schaufeli, Arnold B. Bakker, and Willem Van Rhenen, “How Changes in Job Demands and Resources Predict Burnout, Work Engagement, and Sickness Absenteeism,”Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30 (7) 2000 pp. 893-917.
    [79] Wright, T. A. & Cropanzano, R. (1998). “Emotional Exhaustion As A Predictor Of Job Performance And Voluntary Turnover,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, pp. 486–493.
    [80] Zedeck, S., Maslach, C., Mosier, K. & Skitka, L. (1988). “Affective Response To Work And Quality Of Family Life: Employee And Spouse Perspectives.”Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 3, 135–157.

Externalities and Ethical Buying Decision
Authors :- Lok Tak Ming, Jafy
Keywords :- Coase Theorem, Externalities, Pareto Inefficiency, Ethical Buying Decision.
Published Online :- 19 August 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    Under the condition of perfect competition with the information flow is free and available to all parties in the business, externality is considered as one of the market failure causing Pareto inefficiency due to inappropriate allocation of scare resources. In order to achieve Pareto efficiency, the general alternative is to impose Pigouvian Taxes or assign property right under Coase theorem. The other argument on this problem is from the view of the buyers or consumers. This paper is an explanatory study using a questionnaire survey with 5-point Likert’s scale to the college students in the Philippines. This research investigated whether ordinary consumer will support a company with negative externalities as well as explored the characteristics leading to the ethical buying decision. Based on the statistical analysis from the results of the study, the theories and propositions are supported that the consumer will not support a company with negative externalities. The buyer will make the ethical buying decision in the perfect market such that the demand for the producer with negative externalities will be low. The perfect market mechanism will adjust the externality’s problem naturally without the necessary application of Pigouvian taxes and Coase theorem.
  • View References

    [1] Lok Tak Ming Jafy (2014). Externalities and Social Responsibilities, International Journal of Academic Research in Management (IJARM), Vol 3, No. 2, 2014: 193-207.
    [2] Solymossy Emeric and Joun K Masters (2002). Ethics Through an Entrepreneurial Lens: Theory and Observation, Journal of Business Ethics, Jul 2002, 38, 3: 227-241.
    [3] Brass D J, K D Butterfield and B C Skaggs (1998). Relationships and Unethical Behavior: A Social Network Perspective, Academy of Management Review 23, 14-31.
    [4] Dubinsky A J and B Loken (1989). Analyzing Ethical Decision Making in Marketing, Journal of Business Research 19(2), 83-107.
    [5] Ferrell O C and L G Gresham (1985). A Contingency Framework for Understanding Ethical Decision Making in Marketing, Journal of Marketing 49, 87-96.
    [6] Ferrell O C, L G Gresham and G Fraedrich (1989). A Synthesis of Ethical Decision Models for Marketing, Journal of Macromarketing 9(2), 55-64.
    [7] Hunt S D and S Vitell (1986). A General Theory of Marketing Ethics, Journal of Marcomarketing 6(1), 5-16.
    [8] Jones T M (1991). Ethical Decision Making in Organization: An Issue-Contingent Model, Academy of Management Review, 16, 366-395.
    [9] Rest J R (1986). Moral development: Advances in Research and Theory (Praeger, New York).
    [10] Trevino L K (1986). Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: A Person-Situation Interactionist Model, Academy of Management Review 11, 601-617.
    [11] Kohlberg L (1969). Stage and Sequence: The Cognitive-Development Approach to Socialization, in D A Goslin (ed), Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research (Rand-McNally, Chicago).
    [12] Trevino L K, K D Butterfield and D L McCabe (1998). The Ethical Context in Organizations: Influences on Employee Attitudes and Behaviors, Business Ethics Quarterly 8, 447-476.
    [13] Coase Ronald H (1960). The Problem of Social Cost, Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 3 (Oct., 1960): 1-44.
    [14] Harjiono T W and van Marrewijk M (2001). The social dimensions of business excellence, Corporate Environmental Strategy, 8: 223-33.
    [15] Jamali D (2006). Insights into triple bottom line integration from a learning organization perspective, Business Process Management Journal, 12: 809-21.
    [16] Freeman R E (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice-Hall.
    [17] Jamali Dima, Asem M. Safieddine and Myriam Rabbath (2008). Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility Synergies and Interrelationships, The Authors, Volume 16 Number 5 September 2008: 443-459.
    [18] Jones P, Comfort D and Hillier D (2005). Corporate social responsibility and the UK’s top ten retailers, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 33: 882-92.
    [19] Munilla L S and Miles M P (2005). The corporate social responsibility continuum as a component of stakeholder theory, Business and Society Review, 110: 371-87.
    [20] Clarke Thomas (2005). Accounting for Enron: shareholder value and stakeholder interests, Corporate Governance, Volume 13, Number 5, September 2005, 598-612.
    [21] Carroll A (1979). A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance, Academy of Management Review, 4: 497-505.
    [22] Freeman, R. E. & Gilbert, D. E. Jr. (1988). Corporate strategy and the search for ethics. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
    [23] Raiborn, C.A., & Payne, D. (1990). Corporate codes of conduct: A collective conscience and continuum. Journal of Business Ethics, 9, 897-889.
    [24] Velasquez, M. G. (1999). Business ethics: Cases and concept. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
    [25] Andrews, K. R. (1987). The concept of corporate strategy. Richard D Irwain, Inc: New York, NY.
    [26] Mason, D. E. (1992). Values for ethical choices: Rate yourself. Nonprofit World, 10(3), 23-25.
    [27] Adler, N. (1999). International dimensions of organizational behavior. Southwestern, Cincinnati: OH.
    [28] Archie B C (1991). The pyramid of corporate responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders – balancing economic, legal, and social responsibilities, Business Horizons,
    39-48.
    [29] Hair J, Anderson R, Tatham R & Black W (1998). Multivariate data analysis. USA: Prentice-Hall International, Inc.

Justice, Care and Benevolence as Spurs to Employee Loyalty
Authors :- Kemi Ogunyemi
Keywords :- Benevolence, Care, Justice, Loyalty, Virtue
Published Online :- 02 December 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    So many scholars have written about organizational justice that Colquitt et al. (2001) commented on the concern that justice literature may focus on the parts at the risk of forgetting the whole picture, and though they empirically verified that each dimension of justice is distinctive, their analysis serves to emphasize the importance of this field and the usefulness of understanding how to promote justice in the workplace along all its dimensions. This paper proposes loyalty as an underlying ‘construct’ or nexus that binds together the different dimensions of justice – procedural, distributive, interpersonal, informational – and also considers the elements of care and benevolence without which justice could not be adequately beneficial to the organization. The quality of loyalty as a reciprocal value (Melé, 2001; Chandran, 2007) makes it a rich construct through which to look at justice, care and benevolence as employer values that contribute greatly to employee loyalty and its consequent and desirable managerial outcomes (Colquitt et al. 2001): outcome satisfaction, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, trust, acceptance of authority, organizational citizenship behaviour (altruism), and performance. I have herein explored theoretical and empirical bibliographical sources with a view to contributing to bridging the gap between business ethics and organizational justice (Fortin, 2008).
  • View References

    [1] Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 2 (pp. 267-299). New York: Academic Press.
    [2] Appelbaum, S. H., Deguire, K.J., & Mathieu, L. (2005). The relationship of ethical climate to deviant workplace behaviour. Corporate Governance 5(4), 43-55.
    [3] Argandona, A. (1998). The stakeholder theory and the common good. Journal of Business Ethics, 17(9/10), 1093-1102.
    [4] Barling, J., & Phillips, M. (1993). Interactional, formal, and distributive justice in the workplace: An exploratory study. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 127(6), 649-656.
    [5] Barnard, C. I. (1948). Organization and management: Selected papers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    [6] Barnard, C. I. (1968/1938). The functions of the executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    [7] Bies, R. J., & Moag, J. F. (1986). Interactional justice: Communication criteria of fairness. In R. J. Lewicki, B. H., Sheppard, & M. H. Bazerman (eds.), Research on negotiations in organizations, Vol 1
    (pp. 43-55). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    [8] Bowen, D.E., Gilliland, S.W., & Folger, R. (1999). HRM and service fairness: How being fair with employees spills over to customers. Organizational Dynamics, 27(3), 7-23.
    [9] Brockner, J. (1990). Scope of justice in the workplace: How survivors react to co-worker layoffs. Journal of Social Issues, 46(1), 95-106.
    [10] Chandran, J. (2007). The relevance of Chester Barnard for today’s manager. Retrieved Mar 21, 2011, from http://www.telelavoro.rassegna.it/fad/socorg03/l4/barnard.pdf.
    [11] Chuang, C-H., & Liao, H. (2010). Strategic human resource management in service context: Taking care of business by taking care of employees and customers. Personnel Psychology, 63, 153-196.
    [12] Cole, C. L. (2000). Building loyalty. Workforce (August), 44-48.
    [13] Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O. L. H., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 425-445.
    [14] Colquitt, J., Greenberg, J., & Zapata-Phelan, C. P. (2005). What is organizational justice? A historical overview. In J. Greenberg & J. Colquitt (eds.). Handbook of Organizational Justice (pp. 3-56). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [15] Coughlan, R. (2005). Employee loyalty as adherence to shared moral values. Journal of Managerial Issues, Spring 2005, available at http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/132536006_1.html.
    [16] Folger, R. (1987). Distributive and procedural justice in the workplace. Social Justice Research, 1(2), 143-159, DOI: 10.1007/BF01048013.
    [17] Folger, R., & Cropanzano, R. (1998). Organizational justice and human resource management. London:Sage.
    [18] Folger, R., & Konovsky, M. A. (1989). Effects of procedural and distributive justice on reactions to pay raise decisions. Academy of Management Journal, 32, 115-130.
    [19] Folger, R., & Skarlicki, D. P. (1997). Retaliation in the workplace: The roles of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(3), 434-443.
    [20] Fortin, M. (2008). Perspectives on organizational justice: Concept clarification, social context integration, time and links with morality. International Journal of Management Reviews, 10(2), 93-126.
    [21] Grant, P. (2011). An Aristotelian approach to sustainable business. Corporate Governance, 11 (1), 4-14.
    [22] Greenberg, J. (1987). A taxonomy of organizational justice theories. Academy of Management Review,12, 9-22.
    [23] Greenberg, J. (1990a). Employee theft as a reaction to underpayment inequity: The hidden cost of pay cuts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 561-568.
    [24] Greenberg, J. (1990b). Organizational justice: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Journal of Management, 16, 399-432.
    [25] Greenberg, J. (1995). The quest for justice on the job: Essays and experiments. Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage.
    [26] Grisez, G., & Shaw, R. (1974). Beyond the new morality: The responsibilities of freedom. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
    [27] Heskett, J. L., Jones, T. O., Loveman. G. W., Sasser, W. E., & Schlessinger L. (1994). Putting the service-profit chain to work. Harvard Business Review, March-April, 164-174.
    [28] Karnes, R. E. (2009). A change in business ethics: The impact on employer-employee relations. Journal of Business Ethics, 87, 189-197.
    [29] Kelly, S. W., & Dorsch, M. J. (1991). Ethical climate, organizational commitment, and indebtedness among purchasing executives. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 11(4): 55-66.
    [30] Lu, C. (1998). Images of justice: Justice as a bond, a boundary and a balance. The Journal of Political Philosophy, 6(1), 1-26.
    [31] Mahoney, J. T. (2002). The relevance of Chester I. Barnard’s teachings to contemporary management education: Communicating the aesthetics of management. International Journal of Organization Theory and Behaviour, 5(1), 159-172.
    [32] Malloch, T. (2008). Spiritual enterprise: Doing virtuous business. New York, NY: Encounter Books.
    [33] Masterson, S. S., Lewis-McClear, K., Goldman, B. B., & Taylor, S. M. (2000). Integrating justice and social exchange: The differing effects of fair procedures and treatment on work relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 738-748.
    [34] Mckelvie, r. (2010). virtue ethics and habits: how moral virtues are acquired and happiness attained, available at http://www.suite101.com/content/virtue-ethics-and-habits-a186981.
    [35] Meindl, J., & Steensma, H. (1994). Justice in the workplace. Social Justice Research, 7(3), 189-195, DOI: 10.1007/BF02334830.
    [36] Melé, D. (2001). Loyalty in business. Business Ethics Quarterly, 11(1), 11-26.
    [37] Melé, D. (2009). Integrating personalism into virtue-based business ethics: The personalist and the common good principles. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(1), 227-244.
    [38] Melé, D. (2011). Ethics for Good Management. London: Palgrave-MacMillan.
    [39] Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. (2004). 11th ed. (Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: Merriam-Webster Incorporated.
    [40] Moorman, R. H. (1991). Relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviours: Do fairness perceptions influence citizenship behaviours? The Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 845-855.
    [41] Novicevic, M., Harvey, M., Buckley, M., Brown, J., & Evans, R. (2006). Authenticity in executive behaviour: Theorizing leadership on Barnard’s foundations. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 13(1), 64-76.
    [42] Novicevic, M. M., Hayek, M., & Fang, T. (2011). Integrating Barnard’s and contemporary views of industrial relations and HRM. Journal of Management History, 17(1), 126-138.
    [43] O’Boyle, E. J., Solari, S., & Marangoni, G. D. (2011). The good company. Corporate Governance, 11(1), 64-76.
    [44] O’Neill, B. S., & Mone, Mark A. (1998). Investigating equity sensitivity as a moderator of relations between self-efficacy and workplace attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(5), 805-816.
    [45] Organ, D. (1988). Organizational citizenship behaviour: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA:Lexington Books.
    [46] Peterson, D.K. (2002). The relationship between unethical behaviour and the dimensions of ethical climate questionnaire. Journal of Business Ethics, 41: 313-326.
    [47] Pillai, R., Williams, E. S., & Tan, J. J. (2001). Are the scales tipped in favour of procedural or distributive justice? An investigation of the U.S., India, Germany, and Hong Kong (China). The International Journal of Conflict Management, 12(4), 312-332.
    [48] Powers, E. L. (2000). Employee loyalty in the new millennium. SAM Advanced Management Journal,65, 4-9.
    [49] Putman, D. A. (1998). Human excellence: Dialogues on virtue theory. University Press of America, Inc.
    [50] Rawls, J. (1962). Justice as fairness. In P. Laslett & W. G. Runciman (eds.) Philosophy, Politics and Society: Second Series. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [51] Reichheld, F. F. (1996). The loyalty effect: The hidden force behind growth, profits and lasting values. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    [52] Renesch, J., & Harman, W. W. (eds.). 1991. New traditions in business: Spirit and leadership in the 21st century, (Sterling and Stone Inc.).
    [53] Rosanas, J.M., & Velilla, M. (2003). Loyalty and trust as the ethical bases of organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(1), 49-59.
    [54] Rosenblatt, Z., & Peled, D. (2002). School ethical climate and parental involvement. Journal of Educational Administration, 40(4), 349-367.
    [55] Shapira-Lishchinsky, O., & Rosenblatt, Z. (2009). Perceptions of organizational ethics as predictors of work absence: A test of alternative absence measures. Journal of Business Ethics, 88, 717-734.
    [56] Smith, A. (1976). In D. Raphael & A. Macfie (eds.). The Theory of Moral Sentiments. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [57] St-Pierre, I., & Holmes, D. (2010). The relationship between organizational justice and workplace aggression. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(5), 1169-1182.
    [58] Thibaut, J., & Walker, L. (1975). Procedural justice: A psychological analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [59] Tredget, D. A. (2010). Practical wisdom and the rule of Benedict. Journal of Management Development, 29 (7/8), 716-723.
    [60] Turnipseed, D., & Murkison, G. (1996). Organization citizenship behaviour: an examination of the influence of the workplace. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 17(2), 42–47.
    [61] Upchurch, R. S., & Rhuland, S K. (1996). The organizational bases of ethical work climates in lodging operations as perceived by general managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 15(10), 1083-1093.
    [62] Vardi, Y. (2001). The effects of organizational and ethical climate on misconduct at work. Journal of Business Ethics, 29, 325-337.
    [63] Victor, B., & Cullen, J. B. (1998). The organizational bases of ethical work climates. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 101-125.
    [64] Wimbush, J. C., & Shepard, J. M. (1994). Toward an understanding of ethical climate: Its relationship to ethical behaviour and supervisory influence. Journal of Business Ethics, 13, 637-647.

Assessing Knowledge Management Establishment Case Study
Authors :- Leili Azimi-Pour and Majid Nili-Ahmadabadi
Keywords :- knowledge management, organizational culture, knowledge processes, information technology
Published Online :- 18 February 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    This paper aims to identify the key elements of knowledge management establishment in Isfahan hospitals. The main factors of this study are organizational culture, knowledge processes and information technology. This study is descriptive-survey. The statistical population of the study consists of 724 of Isfahan hospitals in 2013. For sampling method we use Jersey and Morgan table and statistical sample of this study are 300 customers. For determining the impact of each variable on knowledge management establishment and hypothesis testing the Pearson’s correlation and multiple regressions is used. Research results show that all three main variables of the study impact on knowledge management establishment from the staff views.
  • View References

    [1] Seung won yoon, 2009. Advance in Developing. Human Resources, Designing integrative knowledge management System: theoretical consideration and practical application. Advances in Developing
    Human Resources, sanfrancisco. Volll. Lss3, pg 307.
    [2] Conley,Curtis A, sheng, well, 2009.Advance in developing Human Resources. San Fran cisco. Vol.11.Less3.pg334.
    [3] Yang B , zheng W, vere C, 2009. Advances in Developing Human Resources, Sanfrancisco, Vol.11,lss3,pg 273.
    [4] Rastogi PN, 2000. Knowledge management and intellectual capital – the new virtuous reality of competitiveness. Hum Syst Manage;19(1):39-49.
    [5] Davenport TH, Prusak L, 1998. Working knowledge: how organizations manage what they know. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    [6] Lee H, Choi B, 2003. Knowledge management enablers, process, and organizational performance: an integrative view and empirical examination. J Manage Inf Syst;20(1):179-228
    [7] Gold AH, Malhotra A, Segars AH, 2001. Knowledge management: an organizational capabilities perspective. J Manage Inf Syst;18(1):185-214.
    [8] Hofstede G, 1980. Culture’s Consequences, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA.
    [9] Chase RL, 1997. ”The knowledge-based organization: an international survey”, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 38-49.
    [10] Alavi M, Leidner DE, 2001. ”Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: conceptual foundations and research issues”, MIS Quarterly, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 107-36.
    [11] Long DD, 1997. ”Building the knowledge-based organizations: how culture drives knowledge
    [12] behaviors”, working paper, Center for Business Innovation, Ernst & Young LLP, Cambridge, MA.
    [13] Barney J, 1991. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. J Manage;17 (1):99-120.
    [14] Schein EH, 1985.Organizational culture and leadership: a dynamic view. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    [15] Deal TA, Kennedy AA, 1982.Corporate culture. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    [16] Gordon GG, Di Tomaso N, 1992. Predicting corporate performance from organizational culture. J Manag Stud;29:783-98.
    [17] Wilkins AL, Ouchi WG, 1983. Efficient cultures: exploring the relationship between culture and organizational performance. Adm Sci Q;28:468-81.
    [18] Brockman BK, Morgan RM, 2003. The role of existing knowledge in new product innovativeness and performance. Decis Sci;34(2):385-419.
    [19] Young G, Sapienza H, Baumer D, 1999. The influence of flexibility in buyer-seller relationships on the productivity of knowledge. J Bus Res;56(6):443-51.
    [20] Alavi M, Leidner DE, 2001. ”Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: conceptual foundations and research issues”, MIS Quarterly, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 107-36.
    [21] Chua A, Lam W, 2005. ”Why KM projects fail: a multi-case analysis”, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 9 No. 3, pp. 6-17.
    [22] Yeh YJ, Lai SQ, Ho CT, 2006. ”Knowledge management enablers: a case study”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 106 No. 6, pp. 793-810.
    [23] Ruppel CP, Harrington SJ, 2001. ”Sharing knowledge through intranets: a study of organizational culture and intranet implementation’ ‘, IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, Vol. 44 No. 1, pp. 37-52.
    [24] Connelly, C.E. and Kelloway, E.K. (2003), ”Predictors of employees’ perceptions of knowledge sharing culture”, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 24 No. 5, pp. 294-301.
    [25] Moffett, S., McAdam, R. and Parkinson, S. (2003), ”An empirical analysis of knowledge management applications”, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 6-26.

Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage A Study of Nigeria’s Manufacturing Sector
Authors :- Yahaya Sani , Abdel- Hafiez Ali Hassaballah and Muhammad Hassan Hafiz
Keywords :- Resource Base View, competitive advantage, sustainable competitive advantage and Innovation.
Published Online :- 18 February 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    Nigeria has allowed itself to be used for all sorts of imported goods from foreign industries and Asian Tigers in the name of globalization. Consequently, this has greatly affected the capacity utilization of various firms of the Nigeria’s manufacturing sector. it is a thing of concern that even the oil which Nigeria produces, part of it is refined abroad and imported back to the country to meet-up local consumption, the situation becomes more aggravated due to Nigerians preference for foreign good. The purpose of this study is to investigate on how Nigeria’s manufacturing firms could gain and sustain competitive advantage deciding resource base view’s value, rareness and inimitability as independent variable according to the study as Elements of competitive advantage and innovation as dependent variable also known to be sustainable competitive advantage according to this study. Data were collected through personal questionnaire from166 manufacturing firms in Nigeria who are Members of Manufacturing Association of Nigeria within North West and North Central zones with 70% response rate. The results from the study indicated that there is positive and significant relationship between elements of competitive advantage namely resource value, resource rareness and resource inimitability with sustainable competitive advantage; innovation. According to the result manufacturers in Nigeria fully agreed that implementing strategy that leads to value, rare and inimitable resource yield firms competitive advantage and continues innovation sustained the advantage. This study adds Knowledge to the theory and practice of sustainable competitive advantage particularly in Nigeria’s manufacturing firms. Its theoretical and empirical significance adds more insight on the previous empirical studies in the field that is to say it gives guidelines to manufacturers in Nigeria on the application of strategic management. It gives guidelines to manufacturers in Nigeria on the impact of strategic management approaches on sustainable competitive advantage. For government and firms, the study provides avenue of enhancing sustainable competitive advantage in Nigeria and Africa as a whole since the phenomena is general.
  • View References

    [1] Ajayi, I. (1990). Nigeria: The Trapped Economy. Ibadan- Nigeria: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd.
    [2] Aluko, M.A.O., Akinola, G.O. and Fatakun, S. (2004). “Globalization and the Manufacturing Sector: a Study of Some Selected Textiles Firms in Nigeria”. Journal of social science, Vol. 9 No. 2, pp 122-127.
    [3] Barney, J. B. (1991a), “Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage”’ Journal of Management, 17: 99-120.
    [4] Barney, J. B. (2002)’ Gaining and sustain competitive advantage. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall.
    [5] Barney, J. B. 2001. “Is the resource-based view a useful perspective for strategic management Research? “Yes”, Academy of management Review, 26: 41-56.
    [5] Bharadwaj, S G., Rajan V, and Fahy J. (1993.), “Sustainable Competitive Advantage in Service Industries: A Conceptual Model and Research Propositions.” Journal of Marketing 57 (October): 83-99.
    [6] Burden, R. and Pract0r, T.(2000), “Creating sustainable competitive advantage Through Training”. Team performance management” vol.6, No. 5/6, pp.90-97.
    [7] Clulow, V., Barry, C. and Gerstman, J. (2007), “Resources-based view and value: The customer-based view of firm”, Journal of European industrial training.vol.31, No. 1, pp.19-35
    [8] Conner, K.R. (1991), “A historical comparison of resource-based theory and five schools of thought within industrial organization economics: Do we have a new theory of the firm?” Journal of Management, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 121-154.
    [9] Cousins, P.D. (2005), “The alignment of appropriate firm and supply strategies for competitive advantage” International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 25, N5,2005, pp. 403-428.
    [10] Daily Trust (2010). Editorial. Vol. 18, No. 94, April 24, p 1.
    [11] Day, G.S. and Wensley, R. (1988), “Assessing Advantage: A Framework for Diagnosing Competitive Superiority.” Journal of Marketing 52 (April): 1-20.
    [12] Eva, T. and Alena, K. (2010), “Influence of strategic management on market orientation” Journal of economic and management pp. 814-819
    [13] Fahy, J., Farrelly, F. and Quester, P. (2004), “Competitive advantage through sponsorship:Conceptual model and research propositions” European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 38 No. 8, 2004, pp.1013-1030.
    [14] Fiol, C.M. (2001). ”Revising an identity-based view of sustainable competitive advantage”. Journal of Management, 27:691-699.
    [15] Hoffman, N. P. (2000) An examination of the “Sustainable competitive Advantage Concept: Past, present, and future” http/nhoffmal@bcc.cba.ua.edu
    [16] Jeroen, K., Spender, J. C., & Aard, G. (2010), “The Resource-Based View: A Review of Its Critique”, Journal of Management 36:349.
    [17] Lin, B.W. (2003). “Technology transfer as technological learning: a source of competitive advantage for firms with limited research and development resources”. Research and development Management, 33, 3, 2003. 327-341.
    [18] Mabey, C., Salman, G. and Storey, J. (1998), Strategic human resource management, London: SAGE Publications.
    [19] Morgan, R. M. and Hunt, D.S. (1996), “Relationship-Based Competitive Advantage: The Role of Relationship Marketing in Marketing Strategy” working paper. The University of Alabama.
    [20] Newbert, S.L. ((2008), “Value, rareness, competitive advantage, and performance: A conceptual level empirical investigation of the resource-based view of the firm” Strategic management Journal, 29(7), 745-768.
    [21] Peteraf, M. A. 1993. “The Cornerstones of Competitive Advantage: A Resource-Based View.” Strategic Management Journal 14: 179-191.
    [22] Porter, M. E. 1980. Competitive strategy. Techniques for analyzing industries and Competitions. New York: Free press.
    [23] Prahalad, C. K. and Haamel, G. (1990), “Core competence of the corporation” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 68, pp. 79-91
    [24] Sagagi, M.S. (2004). Globalization, International Competition and Corporate Strategy: An Analysis of Textile Industry in Northern Nigeria. A PhD. Thesis submitted to Usman Danfodio University, Sokoto-Nigeria (Unpublished).
    [25] Sekaran, U. (2000) Research in methods for business: a skill-building approach. John Wiley & Sons
    [26] Tahir, K.B. (2010). Globalization and Nigeria’s economic development: Rethinking Nigeria’s trade and industrial policy. ABGA International conference Malaysia.
    [27] Thompson, AA., Strickland, AJ. and Gomble, JE. (2005). Crafting and Executing strategy: The for competitive advantage. 14th edition. Ac Grew – Hill international edition New York.

Investigating the Relationship between Recruitment & Selection Practice and OCB Dimensions of Commercial Banks in China Authors
Authors :- Sumayya Begum, Sun Zehou and Mohammad Amzad Hossain Sarker
Keywords :- China, Commercial Banks, HRM, OCB, Recruitment, Selection.
Published Online :- 24 February 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    The core objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between recruitment & selection practice and OCB dimensions of some commercial banks in China. For that purpose data were collected by verified structured questionnaire. Total 57 respondent (N= 57) were chosen from six (6) commercial banks in China by convenience sampling technique. The condition was that all of the respondents were working in different positions of selected banks in China. Data were analyzed by using software SPSS-16.0 version by adopting the statistical techniques, correlation and regression. The study reveals that recruitment & selection practice exercised in the private banking sector of China have significant influence on employees’ extra role behaviors. The findings also found that the percentage of variance in employees’ consciousness behavior is most significantly influenced by recruitment & selection practice of commercial banks in China then the rest of the order is as follows: employees’ courtesy (58.0%), employees’ altruism behavior (56.0%) and employees’ civic virtue behavior (45.5%). Therefore this study recommend the employers to ensure effective and fair recruitment process followed by reward and motivation, career growth, training & development and job design to enhance OCB of the employees in the workplace for long term employment relationship. This research also suggest that the field of HRM and OCB must get more attention to develop relevant theories and models for the Chinese commercial banks to ensure best HRM practices for getting sustainable competitive advantage.
  • View References

    [1] Bell, S. J., & Menguc, B., (2002). The employee-organization relationship, organizational Citizenship behaviors and superior service quality. Journal of Retailing, 78: 131-146.
    [2] Law Siew Fang & Sandra Jones (2009). A Guanxi Model Of Human Resource Management. Chinese Management Studies, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2009, pp. 313-327.
    [3] Fernandez,C.J.(1992). Solider Quality and Job Performance in Team Tasks. Social Science Quarterly, Vol.73, pp. 253-265.
    [4] David E. Terpstra (1994). HRM: A Key to Competitiveness. Management Decision, Vol. 32 No. 9, 1994, pp. 10-14.
    [5] Rynes, S.L. and Cable, D.M. (2003). Recruiting Research in The 21st Century: Moving To A Higher Level, in Borman, W., Ilgen, D. and Klimoski, R. (Eds). The Handbook of Psychology, Vol. 12, John Wiley, New York, NY, pp. 55-77.
    [6] Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. 1988.
    [7] Zhang M., Fan D.D. and Zhu C.J. (2013). High-Performance Work Systems, Corporate Social Performance and Employee Outcomes: Exploring the Missing Links. Journal of Business Ethics, DOI 10.1007/s10551-013-1672-8, @ Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht, 2013.
    [8] The Hudson Report: China, salary & employment insights (2013) and The Hudson Report: Employment Trends. Q1 2013. Hudson. (http://hudson.cn/hudson-report/2013-Q1/China), accessed on 27.01.2014.
    [9] Farh Jiing-Lih, Chen-Bo Zhong and Dennis W. Organ (2004). Organizational Citizenship Behavior in the People’s Republic of China. Organization Science Vol. 15, No. 2, March–April 2004, pp. 241–253.
    [10] Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.), NY: McGraw Hill.

Principals’ Administrative Effectiveness and Staff Productivity in Selected Secondary School in South West Region, Cameroon
Authors :- Joseph Besong Besong
Keywords :- Principal, Administrative, Effectiveness Staff and, Productivity.
Published Online :- 19 March 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    The study investigates administrative effectiveness and their managerial implications towards staff productivity in terms of managing human and material resources, interpersonal relationship, managing school finance, discipline and motivation of staff. Two hypotheses were isolated and the researcher adopted ex-post-facto for the study. The researcher made an instrument known as Principals’ Administrative Effectiveness and Staff Descriptive Questionnaire (PAESDQ) to illicit data, using the questionnaire of a 4-point Likert scale from 300 respondents or sample population drawn from the selected secondary schools in the targeted Region for the study and a stratified random sampling technique was used .The data were analyzed using independent t-test. The result of the study showed that principals administrative effectiveness was significantly positive in terms of interpersonal relationship, managing school finance and motivation of staff but significantly negative in managing human and material resources. However, principals administrative effectiveness was not contingent on their sexes that is male or female in terms of the variables used or isolated out for the study towards staff productivity in South-West Region of Cameroon Males principals proved more efficient than their female counterparts in terms of administrative effectiveness in all the variables isolated for the study .Some profile recommendations made included that principals’ appointment should be based on administration or managerial qualification(s) and experience. Induction courses should be organized for those promoted to the rank of principals, to acquaint with simple ethics of management and administration of human beings Fresher’s or those from higher institutions of learning should not be appointed yet until after some years of practical experience, hence it is the best teacher. Political sentiments should not be found at the corridors of those saddled with this responsibility. Principals should be encouraged by motivating them in terms of incentives as grass-root administrators for effectiveness since they are representatives of both the Regional Delegate of Ministry of Education and the Minister of Education in their respective secondary schools in South-West Region in particular and those in other Regions’ secondary schools throughout the country in general. Fresher’s (i.e. newly employed teachers) from Higher Teachers’ Training Colleges posted to secondary schools in South-West Region and elsewhere in the country should be motivated so that they should not make teaching profession as stepping stone to other jobs which are more lucrative This will improve staff productivity in secondary schools in South-West Region in particular and the country at large.
  • View References

    [1] Adams, S. (1963). Towards an understanding of inequity, journal of Abnormal social psychology, vol. 67 N5 (NOV.), pp 422-436.
    [2] Babalola, J. B., Ayeni, A. O., Adedeji, S. A., Suleiman, A. A and Arikewuyo, M. O .(2006). Educational Management, Codat publications, Ibadan.
    [3] Besong, J. B. (2001). Personal Background and Administrative Effectiveness of Primary School Headteachers in Cross River State, unpublished MED Thesis, University of Calabar, Calabar.
    [4] Getzls, J. W, and Gba, E.G. (1957). Administration As a Social Process. A.W. Halpin (Ed). Administrative Theory in Education. Mid-West Administration Centre University of Chicago.
    [5] Hornby, A. S. (2001). Oxford Advanced Learner’s dictionary (6th edition), Oxford University Press.
    [6] Herzberg, F. (1968). One more time. How do you motivate, Employees? Harvard Business (Jan-Feb). pp 53-62.
    [7] Maslow, A. (1954).Motivation and Personality: New York; Harper.
    [8] McGregor, D. (1960). The Human Side of Enterprise, New York: McGraw-Hall,
    [9] Mayo. (1933). The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization. New York Macmillan Publishers.
    [10] Peretomode, V. F. (2010). Educational Administration; Applied concept and Theoretical Perspectives for students and Practioners. Joja Educational Research and publishers Limited.
    [11] Peterman, N. S. and Kennedy, J. (2003). Enterprise education: influencing students’ perceptions of Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28 (2), 129-144.
    [12] Porter, L., and Lawler, E. E. (1968). Managerial Attitudes and Performance: Dorsey.
    [13] Ross,N. and Track, A. (1976). The sex Factor an the Management of schools, New York: John Wiley and Sons.
    [14] Uche, S. C. (2001). Climate for Excellence Schools that Boster Self-Discipline: A paper Delivered at the 2nd Quadrennial Conference of the Nigerian Union Teachers (NUT), Cross River State on 18th Jan. 2001. University of Calabar, Calabar.
    [15] Vroom. H. and Yelton, P.W. (1973). A Normative Model for leadership Styles in H. J. and Pondy (Eds.) Reading in Management Psychology: 2nd (Ed.) University of Chicago Press.

Management of Risk in Industrial Projects Evaluation
Authors :- Marian Andrei Gurau, Lucia Violeta Melnic
Keywords :- Chaos, Investment decision, Project management, Risk
Published Online :- 25 March 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    The article presents the concepts that can occur in the assessment and implementation of industrial projects, as well as the modalities of implementation of a robust risk management. It is present the interdependence between project complexity and categories of risk: chaos, uncertainty, ambiguity, propagation. Also is realized a model of evaluation and measuring the risks in the case of investment decisions.
  • View References

    [1] Apostol, I. (2009). Risk evaluation in international investments. (Doctoral dissertation, Economical Studies Academy, Bucharest).
    [2] Doicin, C. (2009). Investments project analysis in engineering. Editura Bren. Bucharest.
    [3] Negoescu, G. (2005). Risk and uncertainty in market economy. Editura Alter Ego. Galaţi.
    [4] Vidal, L.A. (2009). Thinking project management in the age of complexity. Particular implications on project risk management, Ecole Centrale Paris (PhD thesis).
    [5] Gurãu, M.A. (2012). Decision analysis in projects with WinQSB software, Proceedings in Manufacturing Systems, 7(3), 145-148.
    [6] Gurãu, M.A. (2012). Some contributions in economic evaluation of industrial projects field (Report of PhD thesis, Polytechnic University of Bucharest).
    [7] Project Management Institute, (2004). A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide, USA).
    [8] Hayes, M.G. (2003). Investment and finance under fundamental uncertainty. University of Sunderland.
    [9] Auzins, A. (2007). Investment decision-making under conditions of risk. (Doctoral dissertation, Riga Technical University).
    [10] Andreica, S., Cãntãu, N. (2004). Methods and models of economic estimates. Bucharest.

A Survey of the Effect of Organizational Intelligence on Motivation of the Employees
Authors :- Mojtaba Firuzjaeyan, Morteza Kouchak Amoli and Ahmad Mohmmad Nataj Fereiduni
Keywords :- Entrepreneurship, Organizational intelligence, Motivation
Published Online :- 16 April 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    One of the most important equipments of organizations to develop the capabilities is entrepreneurship of human resources. Managers motivation leads to the systematic attempt for long-term investigation of the future of science, technology, economy, environmental and society to identify the new phenomena. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of organizational intelligence on motivation as one of the components of the entrepreneurship. The present study is correlation design and the data were collected by the questionnaire that was distributed among 230 educational employees of the university including the lecturers and educational-executive managers. Total count sampling method was used. The data were collected by Albrecht organizational intelligence survey and Robbins entrepreneurship and both of them had good validity and reliability. The results showed that there was high and positive correlation between organizational intelligence and motivation. The correlation of organizational intelligence was 0.73. It means that the higher the organizational intelligence, the higher the motivation of the employees. The multi-variate analysis showed that organizational intelligence components could determine 0.59 of the changes of dependent variable (motivation).
  • View References

    [1] Samad Aghayi, J. (1999). Entrepreneur organizations. First edition. Administrative management.
    [2] Druker, p; 1985. The Discipline of Innovation.Harvard business review.http://notendur.hi.is/honer/eaps/druck7-b.htm.
    [3] Shane, S. and Venkataraman, S.; 2000. The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research’, Academy of Management Review, 25(1). (217–26)
    [4] Gartner, B.W., Carter, N.M. and G.E. Hills ; (2003). The language of opportunity’, in C. Steyaert and D.Hjorth (eds), New Movements in Entrepreneurship, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar.
    [5] Ahmadpourdaryani, M. (2008). Entrepreneurship basics. Tehran. Farandish publications. Fifth edition. Iran.
    [6] Naeli, M. (1994). Motivation in organizations. Ahvaz: Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz publication. (11-14).
    [7] Segal, G., Borgia, D,. & Schoenfeld, J. (2005). The motivation to become an entrepreneur”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 11(1). (42 – 57)
    [8] Porter, L. W., & Lawler, E. E. (1968). Managerial attitudes and performance. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press and Richard D. Irwin.
    [9] Moghimi, M. (1998). Organization and management study approach: Tehran. Terme.
    [10] Abzari, M, Etebarian, A; Satari Ghahfarokhi, M. (2006). Organizational intelligence and avoiding the collective backward view, Organizational knowledge management journal.19(25). (20- 35).
    [11] Matsuda, T. (1992). Organizational Intelligence: Its Significance as a Process and as a Product”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Economics/Management and Information Technology, Tokyo, Japan, August 31-September 4.
    [12] Albrecht, K. (2003). The power of minds at work: organizational intelligence in action”, American Management Association.
    [13] Yarayi, A. (2004). The study of some of entrepreneurial spirits among the students of Shiraz University. MA thesis of industrial management. Shiraz University.
    [14] Salasel, M; Kamkar, M. Golparvar. M. (2009). The relationship between organizational intelligence and its components with organizational citizenship behavior of the employees of Ehyagostaran Spadan Company. Knowledge and study in applied psychology. 11(40). Summer. 2009.
    [15] Hutchinson L. (2003). ABC of learning and teaching in medicine : Educational environment. University hospital lewisham. 17(1/2).
    [16] Shafizade, Ali. (2002). The study of job motivational factors of male teachers of physical education. Journal of motion. 3(14). (53-67).

Impact of Accounting Information Systems on Profitability of Small Scale Businesses: A Case of Kampala City in Uganda
Authors :- Augustine Muhindo, Maureen Kapute Mzuza and Jian Zhou
Keywords :- Accounting information systems, profitability, small scale businesses
Published Online :- 16 April 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of accounting information systems on profitability level of small scale businesses in Kampala city. Uganda, East Africa. The Major problem identified was that, most small scale businesses do not have accounting information systems which result into continuous low performance levels. Descriptive method was used where qualitative data was collected. Secondary data was collected to analyze the impact of accounting information systems on profitability level of small scale businesses. Research findings revealed that most small scale businesses do not apply accounting information systems which result into low profits. In addition to that, the findings show that there is a positive relationship between accounting information systems and profitability level of small scale businesses. Accounting plays an important role in our economic and social systems especially in its management and great work it does in facilitating management decision making process. This study therefore recommends that small scale businesses should adopt these systems in their business management. The Government and policy makers should come up with policies and guidelines that will facilitate the implementation of these systems in the business environment. Such policies could include tax waivers or tax reductions on equipment to be used in these systems.
  • View References

    [1] Adewoye, J.O and Akanbi, T.A. (2012). Role of Information and Communication Technology Investment on the Profitability of Small Medium Scale Industries. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences (JETEMS) 3(1), 64-71, 2012.
    [2] Busingye, D. (1999). Research report Accounting Receivable and Profitability in Domestic airline industry. Makerere University.
    [3] Caruthers, B.G. & Espeland, W.N. (1991). Accounting for Rationality: Double-Entry Bookkeeping and the Rhetoric of Economic Rationality. The University of Chicago Press. The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 97 No, 1.
    [4] Collin, D. (2004). Cost and management Accounting. 6th Edition, Thomson learning/London.
    [5] Cushing and Romney, A. (1984). Accounting information systems. Wisely Publishing Company, City of publication, United State of America.
    [6] David, H.L. (1983). Accounting information systems a control a control emphasis. Home wood Illinois Richard D. Irwin.
    [7] Dwinvedi, D.N (2002). Management Economics. Vikas Publishing House New Delhi.
    [8] John, A.P (2002). Strategic Management, strategic formulation and Implementation. 3rd Edition, Nice printing press, Delhi.
    [9] Kakuru, J. (2000). Basic Financial management. Makerere University Business School, Kampala (Uganda).
    [10] Kalibala, J (1994). Occasional paper. Makerere University journal, NO.6 pp11, December.
    [11] Kamukama, A.N. (2006). Cost and Management Accounting. 1st Edition.
    [12] Kemper, A. (1997). Financial Management. 2rd Edition New Delhi Publishers.
    [13] Leonard, A.R (1986), Accounting Information Systems. A cycle Approach 2nd Edition, Harper and row publishers: New York.
    [14] Magembe, B. (1995). Makerere University Journal. Occasional No.6, pp 83.Nov.
    [15] Mwangi, B.W (2011). Accounting Systems in Small and Micro Enterprises in Kenya. Journal of Language. Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 3 No. 1, 2011.
    [16] Ngahu,C.W (1995). Role of small scale enterprises in social economic development and poverty alleviation in Kenya: Coping with economic technology change in the new millennium. Part 11,7th Annual International Management conference, December 4-7, 2002.
    [17] Nkundabanyanga, K. (2004). Advanced Accounting. A practiced approach. 1st Edition: John, H.J. 1987. Business, Contemporary concepts and practices. 9th Edition, prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd, London.
    [18] Ogah, I.J. (2013). An Evaluation of the Relevance of Accounting Systems as a Management Decision Tool in Union Bank of Nigeria Plc. Uyo Branch of Akwa Ibom Greener. Journal of Business and Management Business Studies ISSN: 2276-7827 Vol. 3 (1), pp. 038-045, January 2013.
    [19] Okoli, B.E. (2011). Evaluation of the Accounting Systems Used by Small Scale Enterprises in Nigeria: The Case of Enugu- South East Nigeria. Asian Journal of Business Management; Nov. 2011, Vol. 3 Issue 4, p235.
    [20] Okoli, M.A. (2012). The Use Accounting Information as an Aid to Management in Decision Making. British Journal of Science 52May 2012, Vol. 5(1).
    [21] Pandy, I.M. (1997). Financial Management. Vikas publishing House New Delhi. 7th Edition.
    [22] Soudani, S.N. (2012). The Usefulness of an Accounting Information System for Effective Organizational Performance. International Journal of Economics and Finance Vol. 4, No. 5; May 2012.

Externalities and Social Responsibilities
Authors :- Lok Tak Ming, Jafy
Keywords :- Coase Theorem, Externalities, Pareto Inefficiency, Social Responsibilities.
Published Online :- 30 April 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    As this is an explanatory research using a multiple case study method, this research investigated whether ordinary consumer will support a company with negative externalities. From the results of the three case studies, the theories and propositions are supported and literal replication is expected on the propositions. Under the condition of perfect competition with the information flow is free and available to all parties in the market, traditionally, externality is considered as one of the market failure causing Pareto inefficiency. With the buyer will act ethically in the perfect market, the producer with negative externalities will suffer from lower demand such that they will improve the negative externalities impact to public. As such, the externalities issue will be adjusted by the perfect market naturally. The application of Pigouvian taxes and Coase theorem may not be necessary.
  • View References

    [1] Solymossy Emeric and Joun K Masters (2002). Ethics Through an Entrepreneurial Lens: Theory and Observation, Journal of Business Ethics, Jul 2002, 38, 3: 227-241.
    [2] Coase Ronald H (1960). The Problem of Social Cost, Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 3 (Oct., 1960):1-44.
    [3] M (2007). An essay on social responsibility and the limits of the corporate form: A perspective on environmental protection, Journal of Environmental Law and Practice, 17: 115-39.
    [4] Jamali D (2006). Insights into triple bottom line integration from a learning organization perspective, Business Process Management Journal, 12: 809-21.
    [5] Harjiono T W and van Marrewijk M (2001). The social dimensions of business excellence, Corporate Environmental Strategy, 8: 223-33.
    [6] Freeman R E (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice-Hall.
    [7] Jamali Dima, Asem M. Safieddine and Myriam Rabbath (2008). Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility Synergies and Interrelationships, The Authors, Volume 16 Number 5 September
    2008: 443-459.
    [8] WBCSD (World Business Council for Sustainable Development) (2001). The Business Case for Sustainable Development: Making a Difference toward the Johannesbury Summit 2002 and Beyond, WBCSD, Switzerland.
    [9] Business for Social Responsibility (BSR) (2003). Overview of Corporate Social Responsibility. (http://www.bsr.org/BSRResources/WhitePaperDetail.cmf?DocumentID=48809).
    [10] Jones P, Comfort D and Hillier D (2005). Corporate social responsibility and the UK’s top ten retailers, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 33: 882-92.
    [11] Munilla L S and Miles M P (2005). The corporate social responsibility continuum as a component of stakeholder theory, Business and Society Review, 110: 371-87.
    [12] Freeman, R. E. & Gilbert, D. E. Jr. (1988). Corporate strategy and the search for ethics. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
    [13] Raiborn, C.A., & Payne, D. (1990). Corporate codes of conduct: A collective conscience and continuum. Journal of Business Ethics, 9, 897-889.
    [14] Velasquez, M. G. (1999). Business ethics: Cases and concept. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
    [15] Andrews, K. R. (1987). The concept of corporate strategy. Richard D Irwain, Inc: New York, NY.
    [16] Mason, D. E. (1992). Values for ethical choices: Rate yourself. Nonprofit World, 10(3), 23-25.
    [17] Adler, N. (1999). International dimensions of organizational behavior. Southwestern, Cincinnati: OH.
    [18] Carroll A (1979). A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance, Academy of Management Review, 4: 497-505.
    [19] Clarke Thomas (2005). Accounting for Enron: shareholder value and stakeholder interests, Corporate Governance, Volume 13, Number 5, September 2005, 598-612.
    [20] Brass D J, K D Butterfield and B C Skaggs (1998). Relationships and Unethical Behavior: A Social Network Perspective, Academy of Management Review 23, 14-31.
    [21] Dubinsky A J and B Loken (1989). Analyzing Ethical Decision Making in Marketing, Journal of Business Research 19(2), 83-107.
    [22] Ferrell O C and L G Gresham (1985). A Contingency Framework for Understanding Ethical Decision Making in Marketing, Journal of Marketing 49, 87-96.
    [23] Ferrell O C, L G Gresham and G Fraedrich (1989). A Synthesis of Ethical Decision Models for Marketing, Journal of Macromarketing 9(2), 55-64.
    [24] Hunt S D and S Vitell (1986). A General Theory of Marketing Ethics, Journal of Marcomarketing 6(1), 5-16.
    [25] Rest J R (1986). Moral development: Advances in Research and Theory (Praeger, New York).
    [26] Trevino L K (1986). Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: A Person-Situation Interactionist Model, Academy of Management Review 11, 601-617.
    [27] Kohlberg L (1969). Stage and Sequence: The Cognitive-Development Approach to Socialization, in D A Goslin (ed), Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research (Rand-McNally, Chicago).
    [28] Trevino L K, K D Butterfield and D L McCabe (1998). The Ethical Context in Organizations: Influences on Employee Attitudes and Behaviors, Business Ethics Quarterly 8, 447-476.
    [29] Yin, R.K. (2003). Case study research design and methods. California: SAGE Publications.
    [30] Saunders, M., Lewis P., & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research methods for business students. Philippines:Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.

Corporate Social Disclosure: Explanatory Theories and Conceptual Framework

Authors :- Toukabri Mohamed, Ben Jemâa Olfa, Jilani Faouzi
Keywords :- Corporate Social responsibility, Corporate Social Disclosure, Agency Theory, Stakeholders Theory, Legitimacy Theory.
Published Online :- 27 May 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    The expectations of consumers, employees, investors, partners of business and local communities to the role of companies in the folk have increased. Thus, guidelines, principles and codes are recommended for the proper conduct of business. Governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and local communities are demanding to increase transparency and accountability, not only in the daily operation of enterprises, but also in terms of how its operations affect the Society. Indeed, in our research paper we examine the explanatory theories the activity of social responsibility of the company and the corporate social disclosure, the relationship between these different theories and the evolution of communication accounting of social information by companies over time.
  • View References

    [1] Aerts, W. Ledoux ; M. Magnan. & Cormier, D. W. (2006). Attributes of social and human capital disclosure and information asymmetry between managers and investors. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 2, 71-87.
    [2] Beck, A.C.; Campbell, D. & Shrives, P.J. (2010). Content analysis in environmental reporting research: Enrichment and rehearsal of the method in a British–German context. The British Accounting Review, 42 (3), 207-222.
    [3] Bowen H.R. (1953). The Social Responsibilities of the Businessman. New York: Harper and Row.
    [4] Branco, M.C.; Eugénio, T. & Ribeiro, J. (2008). Environmental disclosure in response to public perception of environmental threats: The case of co-incineration in Portugal. Journal of Communication Management, 12(2), 136 – 151.
    [5] Burritt, R. & Welch, S. (1997). Accountability for environmental performance of the Australian Commonwealth public sector. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 10 (4), 532-561.
    [6] [7] Capron M. & Quairel F. (2000). Les dynamiques relationnelles entre les firmes et les parties prenantes. Cahier de Recherche – CREFIGE – Université Paris Dauphine.
    [7] Cormier, D.; Gordon, I. M. & Magman, M. (2004). Corporate environmental disclosure: contrasting management’s perceptions with reality. Journal of Business Ethics, 49(2), 143-165.
    [8] Da Rosa, F.S.; Ensslin, S.R.; Ensslin, L; & Lunkes, J. (2012). Environmental Disclosure Management: a Constructivist Case. Management Decision, 50 (6), 8–32.
    [9] [16] Dierkes, M. & Peterson, A. B. (1997). The Usefulness and Use of Social Reporting Information. Accounting Organizations and Society, 10(1), 29-34.
    [10] Freedman, M. & Patten, D. M. (2004). Evidence on the pernicious effect of financial report environmental disclosure. Accounting Forum, 28(1), 27-41.
    [11] Gray R. (2001). Thirty years of social accounting, reporting and auditing: what (if anything) have we learnt? Business Ethics: A European Review, 10 (1), 9-15.
    [12] [8] Gray, W.R., Kothari S.P., & WATTS R.L. (1996). A market-based evaluation of accrual models. Journal of Accounting Research, 34, 83-105.
    [13] Haron, H., Yahya, S. Chambers, A., Manasseh, S., & Ismail, I. (2004). Level of Corporate Social Disclosure in Malaysia. Fourth Asia Pacific Interdisciplinary Research in Accounting Conference, 4-6 July, Singapore.
    [14] Harte, G. & Owen, D. (1991).Environmental Disclosure in the Annual Reports of British Companies: A Research Note. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 4 (3), 13-20.
    [15] Hasseldine, J., Salama, A. I. & Toms, J. S. (2005). Quantity versus quality: the impact of environmental disclosures on the reputations of UK Plcs. The British Accounting Review, 37(2), 231-248.
    [16] Hope, O.K.(2003). Disclosure Practices, Enforcement of Accounting Standards, and Analysts’ Forecast Accuracy: An International Study. Journal of Accounting Research, 41(2), 235-272.
    [17] Jensen, M.C. (2001). Value Maximization, Stakeholder Theory, and the Corporate Objective Function. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 14, 8-21.
    [18] Kerret, D.; Menahem,G. & Sagi, R. (2010). Effects of the design of environmental disclosure regulation on information provision: The case of Israeli Securities Regulation. Environmental Science and Technology, 44(21), 8022-8029.
    [19] Liu, X. & Anbumozhi, V.(2009). Determinant factors of corporate environmental information disclosure: an empirical study of Chinese listed companies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 17(6), 593-600.
    [20] McWilliams, A. & Siegel, D. (2001). Corporate Social Responsibility: A Theory of the Firm Perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 117-127.
    [21] Othman, R. & Ameer, R. (2010). Environmental disclosures of palm oil plantation companies in Malaysia: A tool for stakeholder engagement. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 17(1), 52-62.
    [22] Pater, A. & Lierop, K. V. (2006). Sense and Sensitivity: The Roles of Organisation and Stakeholders in Managing Corporate Social Responsibility. Business Ethics: A European Review, 15(4), 339-351.
    [23] Patten, D. (1992). The accuracy of financial report projections of future environmental capital expenditures: a research note. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 30, 457-468.
    [24] Perez R. (2007). A propos de la responsabilité globale en management. Journée du Développement Durable et Entreprise. Association Internationale de Management et Stratégie, Angers.
    [25] Phillips R., Freeman R.E. & Wicks A.C., (2002). Wath stakeholder theory is not. Business Ethics Quarterly, 13 (4), 479-502.
    [26] Shidi, D. & Burritt, R. (2010). Cross-sectional benchmarking of social and environmental reporting practice in the Australian oil and gas industry. Sustainable Development, Special Issue: Strategic Approaches to Sustainability Policy and Management, 18(2), 108–118.
    [27] Suchman, M. C. (1995). Managing Legitimacy: Strategic and Institutional Approaches. Academy of Management Review. 20(3), 571-610.
    [28] Tilling, M. (2004) Refinements to Legitimacy Theory in Social and Environmental Accounting. Commerce Research Paper Series, Working Paper N° 04-6. Adelaide, Australia: Flinders University School of Commerce.
    [29] Tilt, C.A. (2006). Linking environmental activity and environmental disclosure in an organizational change framework. Journal of Accounting and Organizational Change, 2(1), 4-24.
    [30] Tyler, T. R. (2006). Psychological Perspectives on Legitimacy and Legitimation. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 375–400.
    [31] Van Der Laan, S. L. (2004). The Role of Theory in Explaining Motivation for Corporate Social Disclosures: Voluntary Disclosures vs. Solicited Disclosures. Fourth Asia Pacific Interdisciplinary Research in Accounting Conference, 4-6 (July), Singapore.
    [32] Watts, R. L. & Zimmerman, J. L. (1978). Towards a Positive Theory of the Determination of Accounting Standards. Accounting Review, 53, 112-134.
    [33] Zimmerman, M. A. & Zeitz, G. J. (2002). Beyond Survival: Achieving New Venture Growth by Building Legitimacy. Academy of Management Review, 27, 414-431.
    [34] Freeman, R. Edward, and William Evan. (1984). Corporate Governance: A Stakeholder Interpretation. The Journal of Behavioral Economics 19 (4), 337-359.
    [35] [5] Dowling, J. B. & Pfeffer, J. (1975). Organisational legitimacy: Social values and organisational behavior. Pacific Sociological Review, 18(1), 122-136.
    [36] Ullmann, A.A., 1985, “Data in Search of a Theory: A critical Examination of the Relationships among Social Disclosure, and Economic Performance of U.S. Firms”, Academy of management Review, 10 (3), 540-557.
    [37] Hackston, D and Milne, M J. (1996). Some Determinants of Social and Environmental Disclosures in New Zealand Companies. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 9(1), 77-108.
    [38] Aaronson, S. and Reeves, J. (2002). The European Response to Public Demands for Global Corporate Responsibility. National Policy Association, www.bitc.org/docs/NPA_Global_CSR.
    [39] Cowen, S., Ferreri, L. and Parker, L. (1987). The impact of corporate characteristics on social responsibility disclosure: a typology and frequency-based analysis. Accounting, Organisation and Society, 12 (2), 111–122.
    [40] Belkaoui, A. and P. G. Karpik (1990). Determinants of the corporate decision to disclose social information. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 2 (1), 36–51.
    [41] Cormier, D. & Gordon, I. M. (2002). An examination of social and environmental reporting strategies. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 14(5), 587-616.
    [42] Walden, W.D. and Schwartz, B.N. (1997).Environmental disclosures and public policy pressure. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 16, 125-54.

Management of Organizational Structuring Process and Corporate Governance: Key Factors of Success in Albania
Authors :- Rezart Dibra
Keywords :- organizational structure, business trends, organizational design, organizational changes, corporate governance.
Published Online :- 05 January 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    Organizational Structure includes a firm’s formal role configuration, procedures, governance, and control mechanisms, and authority and decision-making processes. The simple structure is an organizational form in which the owner-manager makes all major decisions directly and monitors all activities, while the staff serves as an extension of the manager’s supervisory authority.
    Organizational structure is the manner in which an organization divides its labor into specific tasks and achieves coordination among these tasks. It broadly refers to how the organization’s individuals and groups are put together or organized to accomplish work. Organizational structure intervenes between goals and organizational accomplishments and thus influences organizational effectiveness. Structure affects how effectively and efficiently group effort is coordinated. To achieve its goals, an organization has to divide labor among its members and then coordinate what has been divided.
  • View References

    [1] Kimberly W, Organizational Structure Metaphors, GRIN Verlag, 2006.
    [2] Stefan J, The Impact of Management Practices and Organizational Structure on Firm Performance: A Cross Country Empirical Analysis GRIN Verlag, 2010
    [3] Richard M. B, Organization Design: The Evolving State-of-the-Art ,Springer, 2006.
    [4] Sebastian K, The Relationship between Organizational Structure and Organizational Ambidexterity: A Comparison between Manufacturing and Service Firms, Springer, 17/apr/2012.
    [5] Maung K. S, Contemporary Trends in Systems Development, Springer, Jan 1, 2001.
    [6] Optimal Structure, Market Dynamism, and the Strategy of Simple Rules Administrative Science Quarterly 2009 54:413-452
    [7] Shleifer, A. i Vishny, R. W. (1997) A Survey of Corporate Governance. Journal of Finance, 52 (2), pp.737-783.
    [8] Slapničar, S., Gregorič, A. i Rejc, A. (2005) Social Comparison as Determinant of Senior Executives’
    Compensation. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on „Entrprise in Transition“, Crnjak-Karanović, Biljana (ed.). Split: University of Split, Faculty of Economics Split, pp. 187-204.
    [9] Jones, D. C. i Kato, T. (1996) The Determinants of Chief Executive Compensation in Transitional Economies: Evidence from Bulgaria. Labour Economics, 3 (3), pp. 319-336.

Why Repatriates Resign: Interviews with Those Who Left
Authors :- Dawn Olds and Liza Howe-Walsh
Keywords :- Company-Initiated Expatriation, Global Mobility, Qualitative Research Methods, Repatriates, Turnover.
Published Online :- 05 January 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    This research paper is a qualitative exploration of why repatriates resign from their organisation after returning to their home country, through the eyes of repatriates. Based on semi-structured interviews, resignation in part results from underemployment, relative deprivation and unmet expectations. Extending Bowen and Ostroff’s (2004) theoretical framework to repatriation our research highlights a weak climate can be created in an organisation when all parts of the organisation are not working synchronously, thus influencing turnover. In particular our research found the lack of consistent communication by HR significantly affected the repatriate’s experience and intention to leave. We found the pull towards boundaryless careers seemed to be a result of going abroad after repatriation. Our research highlights the importance of additional reward motivating continuance of international assignments.
  • View References

    [1] Arun , T. and Ulku, H. (2011). Determinants of remittances: The case of the South Asian community in Manchester.Journal of Development Studies, 47(6), SI, 894-912.
    [2] Biemann, T. and Andresen, M. (2010). Self-initiated foreign expatriates versus assigned expatriates: Two distinct types of international careers? Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(3-4), 430-448.
    [3] Black, J.S. (1992). Coming home: The relationship of expatriate expectations with repatriation adjustment and job performance, Human Relations, 45, 177–192.
    [4] Black, J.S. and Gregersen, H.B. (1991b). When Yankee comes home – factors related to expatriate and spouse repatriation adjustment. Journal of International Business Studies, 22 (4), 671-694.
    [5] Black, J.S. and Gregersen, H.B. (1999).The right way to manage expats. Harvard Business Review, 77(2), 52-62.
    [6] Blau, P.M. (1964). Exchange & Power in Social Life. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    [7] Bolino, M.C. (2007). Expatriate assignments and intra-organizational career success: Implications for individuals and organizations.Journal of International Business Studies, 38(5), 819-835.
    [8] Bolino, M.C. and Feldman, D.C. (2000).The antecedents and consequences of underemployment among expatriates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(8), 889-911.
    [9] Bowen, D.E. and Ostroff, C. (2004).Understanding HRM-firm performance linkages: The role of the “strength” of the HRM system. Academy of Management Review, 29(2), 203-221.
    [10] Brookfield GMAC (2012), “Global Relocation Trends: 2012 Survey Report”, Brookfield Global Relocation Services, available at: http://www.brookfieldgrs.com/knowledge/ (accessed 12 June 2012).
    [11] Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2011).Business Research Methods (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [12] Campbell, T. (2009).Workers’ remittances and their impact on economic growth in Barbados.Money Affairs, 22(2), 181-194.
    [13] Carraher, S.M., Sullivan, S.E. and Crocitto, M.M. (2008).Mentoring across global boundaries: An empirical examination of home- and host-country mentors on expatriate career outcomes.Journal of International Business Studies, 39(8), 1310-1326.
    [14] Chi, S.C.S. and Chen, S.C. (2007). Perceived psychological contract fulfillment and job attitudes among repatriates: An empirical study in Taiwan. International Journal of Manpower, 28(6), 474-488.
    [15] Collings, D.G., Doherty, N., Luethy, M. and Osborn, D. (2011).Understanding and supporting the career implications of international assignments. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 78(3), 361-371.
    [16] Crosby, F.A. (1976).A model of egoistical relative deprivation. Psychological Review, 83(2), 85-113, Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.
    [17] Dickman M. and Doherty, N. (2008).Exploring the career capital impact of international assignments within distinct organizational contexts. British Journal of Management, 19(2), 145-161.
    [18] Doherty, N. and Dickmann, M. (2009).Exposing the symbolic capital of international assignments. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(2), 301-320.
    [19] Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S. and Sowa, D. (1986).Perceived organizational support.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 500–507.
    [20] Feldman, D.C. (1996).The nature, antecedents and consequences of underemployment. Journal of Management, 22(3), 385-407.
    [21] Feldman, D.C., Leana, C.R. and Bolino, M.C. (2002).Underemployment and relative deprivation among re-employed executives.Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75, 453-471.
    [22] Fink, G., Meierwert, S. and Rohr, U. (2005).The use of repatriate knowledge in organisations. Human Resource Planning, 28(4), 30-36.
    [23] Forster, N. (1994).The forgotten employees? The experiences of expatriate staff returning to the UK. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 5(2), 408-422.
    [24] Gill, J. and Johnson, P. (2010).Research Methods for Managers (4th ed.). London: Sage Publications.
    [25] Hall, D.T., Zhu, G. and Yan, A. (2002).Career creativity as protean identity transformation. In Peiperl, M., Arthur, M., and Anand, N. (Eds.), Career Creativity: Explorations in the Remaking of Work, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 159-177.
    [26] Howe-Walsh, L.J. (2010). “The road to repatriation: Implications for HR policy and practice”, Portsmouth: University of Portsmouth.
    [27] Inkson, K., Arthur, M.B., Pringle, J. and Barry, S. (1997). Expatriate assignment versus overseas experience: Contrasting models of international human resource development. Journal of World Business, 32(4), 351-368.
    [28] Jankowicz, A.D. (2005). Business Research Projects (4th ed.). London: Thomson Learning.
    [29] Jassawalla, A.R. and Sashittal, H.C. (2009).Thinking strategically about integrating repatriated managers in MNCs.Human Resource Management, 48(5), 769–792.
    [30] Jokinen, T. Brewster, C. and Suutari, V. (2008). Career capital during international work experiences: Contrasting self-initiated expatriate experiences and assigned expatriation.International Journal of
    Human Resource Management,19(6), 979-998.
    [31] Kelley, H. H. (1967). Attribution theory in social psychology.In D. Levine (ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (Volume 15, pp. 192-238). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
    [32] Kinnie, N., Hutchinson, S., Purcell, J., Rayton, B. and Swart, J. (2005). Satisfaction with HR practices and commitment to the organisation: Why one size does not fit all. Human Resource Management Journal, 15(4), 9-29.
    [33] Kraimer, M.L., Shaffer, M.A. and Bolino, M.C. (2009). The influence of expatriate and repatriate experiences on career advancement and repatriate retention.Human Resource Management, 48(1),27-47.
    [34] Kraimer, M.L., Shaffer, M.A., Harrison, D.A. and Ren, H. (2012). No place like home? An identity strain perspective on repatriate turnover.Academy of Management Journal, 55(2), 399-420.
    [35] Kraimer M.L. and Wayne, S.J. (2001).An examination of perceived organizational support as a multidimensional construct in the context of an expatriate assignment.Journal of Management, 30(2),209-237.
    [36] Kulkarni, M., Lengnick-Hall, M.L. and Valk, R. (2010). Employee perceptions of repatriation in an emerging economy: The Indian experience, Human Resource Management, 49(3), 531-548.
    [37] Lazarova, M.B. and Caligiuri, P. (2001). Retaining repatriates: The role of organizational support practices.Journal of World Business, 36(4), 389-401.
    [38] Lazarova, M.B. and Cerdin, J.L. (2007).Revisiting repatriation concerns: Organizational support versus career and contextual influences.Journal of International Business Studies,38(3),404-429.
    [39] Lazarova, M.B. and Tarique, I. (2005).Knowledge transfer upon repatriation.Journal of World Business, 40(4), 361-373.
    [40] Mäkelä, K. and Suutari, V. (2009), “Global careers: A social capital paradox”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 20 No. 5, pp. 992-1008.
    [41] McNulty, Y., De Cieri, H. and Hutchings, K. (2009), “Do global firms measure expatriate return on investment? An empirical examination of measures, barriers and variables influencing global staffing practices”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 20 No. 6, pp. 1309-1326.
    [42] Minbaeva, D.B., Mäkelä, K. and Rabbiosi, L. (2012), “Linking HRM and knowledge transfer via individual-level mechanisms”, Human Resource Management, Vol. 51 No. 3, pp. 387-405.
    [43] Morrison, E.W. and Robinson, S.L. (1997), “When employees feel betrayed: A model of how psychological contract violation develops”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 22 No. 1, pp. 226-256.
    [44] Prieto, I.M. and Pérez Santana, M.P. (2012), “Building ambidexterity: The role of human resource practices in the performance of firms from Spain”, Human Resource Management, Vole. 51 No. 2, pp. 189-211.
    [45] PwC 15th Annual Global CEO Survey (2012), PricewaterhouseCoopers, available at: http://www.pwc.com/gx/en/ceo-survey/download.jhtml (accessed 9 June 2012).
    [46] Reiche B.S., Kraimer, M.L. and Harzing, A.W. (2011), “Why do international assignees stay?An organizational embeddedness perspective”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 42 No. 4, pp. 521-544.
    [47] Roese, N.J. (1997), “Counterfactual thinking”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 121 No. 1, pp. 133-148, American Psychological Association, Washington D.C.
    [48] Rousseau, D.M. (1990), “New hire perceptions of their own and their employer’s obligations: A study of psychological contracts”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 11 No. 5, pp. 389-400.
    [49] Rosseau, D.M. and Arthur, M.B. (1999), “The boundaryless human resource function: Building agency and community in the new economic era”, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 27 No. 4, pp. 7-18.
    [50] Sánchez Vidal, M.E., Sanz Valle, R. and Barba Aragón, M.I. (2007), “The adjustment process of Spanish repatriates: A case study”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 18 No. 8, pp. 1396-1417.
    [51] Sánchez Vidal, M.E., Sanz Valle, R. and Barba Aragón, M.I. (2010), “Analysis of the repatriation adjustment process in the Spanish context”, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 31 No. 1, pp. 21-41.
    [52] Saunders, M. and Lewis, P. (2012).Doing Research in Business & Management: An Essential Guide to Planning Your Project. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
    [53] Scullion, H. and Collings, D. (2006), “Alternative forms of international assignments”, in Scullion, H.and Collings, D. (Eds), Global Staffing, Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 159-177.
    [54] Shaffer, M.A., Kraimer, M.L., Chen, Y.P. and Bolino, M.C. (2012), “Choices, challenges, and career consequences of global work experiences: A review and future agenda”, Journal of Management, Vol. 38 No. 4, pp. 1282-1327.
    [55] Shen, Y. and Hall, D.T. (2009), “When expatriates explore other options: Retaining talent through greater job embeddedness and repatriation adjustment”, Human Resource Management, Vol. 48 No. 5,pp. 793–816.
    [56] Stahl, G.K., Chua, C.H., Caligiuri, P., Cerdin, J.L.E. and Taniguchi, M. (2009), “Predictors of turnover intentions in learning-driven and demand-driven international assignments: The role of repatriation concerns, satisfaction with company support, and perceived career advancement opportunities”,
    Human Resource Management, Vol. 48 No. 1, pp. 91-111.
    [57] Stahl, G.K., Miller, E.L. and Tung, R.L. (2002), “Toward the boundaryless career: a closer look at the expatriate career concept and the perceived implications of an international assignment”, Journal of World Business, Vol. 37 No. 3, pp. 216-227.
    [58] Stroh, L.K., Gregersen, H.B. and Black, J.S. (1998), “Closing the gap: Expectations versus reality among repatriates”, Journal of World Business, Vol. 33 No. 2, pp. 111-124.
    [59] Suutari, V. and Brewster, C. (2003), “Repatriation: Empirical evidence from a longitudinal study of careers and expectations among Finnish expatriates”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 14 No. 7, pp. 1132-1151.
    [60] Tang, T.W. and Tang, Y.Y. (2012), “Promoting service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors in hotels: The role of high-performance human resource practices and organizational social climates”,
    International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 31 No. 3, pp. 885-895.
    [61] Tung, R.L. (1998), “American expatriates abroad: From neophytes to cosmopolitans”, Journal of World Business, Vol. 33 No. 2, pp. 125-144.
    [62] van der Heijden, J., van Engen, M. and Paauwe, J. (2009), “Expatriate career support: Predicting expatriate turnover and performance”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 20 No. 4, pp. 831-845.
    [63] Willig, C. (2008). Introducing Qualitative Research in Psychology: Adventures in Theory and Method (2nd ed.). Maindenhead: McGraw Hill/Open University Press.
    [64] Yang, D. (2011), “Migrant Remittances”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 25 No. 3, pp. 129-151.
    [65] Zikic, J., Novicevic, M.M., Harvey, M. and Breland, L. (2006), “Repatriate career exploration: A path to career growth and success”, Career Development International, Vol. 11 No. 7, pp. 633 – 649.

An International Empirical Look at a Few Possible Reasons for Brain Drain
Authors :- William R. DiPietro
Keywords :- Brain Drain, Brain Drain Determinants, Cross Country Analysis.
Published Online :- 05 January 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    Brain drain is a big issue for a lot of countries. Understanding the underlying causes of brain drain is the first step in trying to bring brain drain under control. The purpose of the paper is to use cross country regression analysis to empirically look at some of the factors that may determine brain drain. It finds that higher income per capita, greater country peace, enhanced work force educational quality, and better property rights are associated with reduced country brain drain.
  • View References

    [1] Carrington, W. J. and Detragiache E. (1999). How Extensive is the Brain Drain? Finance and Development, 36(2), 46-49.
    [2] Docquirer, F., Lohest O., and Marfouk A. (2007). Brain Drain in Developing Countries,”The World Bank Economic Review, 21(2), 193-218. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/4454/wber_21_2_193.pdf?sequence=1, October 23, 2012.
    [3] Docquier, F. (2006). “Brain Drain and Inequality across Nations,” Econstor working paper no. 2440, http://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/33758/1/538331658.pdf, October 24, 2012.
    [4] Fund for Peace. (2012). The failed States Index Human Flight Indicator for 2010. http://www.fundforpeace.org/global/?q=fsi-grid2010, October 9, 2012.
    [5] Gallup. (2012). Gallup World Poll, http://www.gallup.com/strategicconsulting/worldpoll.aspx, October 11, 2012.
    [6] Gibson, J. and McKenzie, D. (2011). Eight Questions about Brain Drain, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 25(3), 107-128.
    [7] Institute for Economics & Peace. (2011). The Global Peace Index, http://www.visionofhumanity.org/wpcontent/uploads/2010/06/2010-GPI-Results-and-Methodology-Report1.pdf, February 16, 2011.
    [8] Kaba, A. J. ( 2009). “Africa’s Migration Brain Drain: Factors contributing to the Mass Emigration of Africa’s Elite to the West,” Chapter 5, The New African Diaspora. Isidore Okpewho and Nkiru Nzegwu (Editors), (pp109-123). Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.
    [9] Kalipeni, E, . Semu L. L. & Mblizi M. A. (2012). The Brain Drain of Heath Care Professionals from Sub-Saharan Africa: A Geographic Perspective, Progress in Development Studies, 12(2&3), 153-171.
    [10] Legatum Institute.( 2012). The 2011 Legatum Prosperity index.
    http://www.prosperity.com/prosperiscope/ , October 11, 2012.
    [11] Semela, T. (2011). Vulnerability to Brain-Drain among Academics in Institutions of Higher Learning in Ethiopia, Asian Social Science, 7(1), 3-18.
    [12] Tansel, A. (2003). “Brain Drain” from Turkey: Survey Evidence of Student Non-Return, Career Development International, 8(2), 52-69.
    [13] Torbat, A.E. (2002). The Brain Drain from Iran to the United States, The Middle East Journal, 56(2),272-295.
    [14] World Economic Forum, Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011. (2011).
    http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2010-11.pdfMay 20/2011, July 15,2012.
    [15] World Bank. (2011). World Development Indicators, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator, June 20,2011.

The Exploration of Port Industry Ecological Development under the Background of Lowcarbon
Authors :- Lei Wang
Keywords :- Low-carbon, Ecological development, Port industry, Exploration
Published Online :- 16 January 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    This paper talks about the connotation of port industry ecological trend, analyzing and exploring port industry ecological trend development from five aspects, such as enterprise, supply chain, cluster, land-sea and area, and it aims to explore the internal mechanism and development mode of port industry ecological trend. Some correlative strategy of port industry ecological trend development is mentioned and the theoretical framework of port industry ecological trend development is structured in this paper.
  • View References

    [1] Wei Feng. (2007). Theory Summary of Industrial Agglomeration, Circular Economy and Relationship between Them [J]. Ecological Economy, 7, 107-110.
    [2] Wenjun Wang.(2009). Exploration on Technical and Economic Paradigm of Low Carbon Economy Development [J].Social Sciences in Yunnan, 4, 114-117
    [3] Haoran Xu, Xiaodi Xu, Zilong Wang, (2009). Diagnosis of government Role in Industry Ecosphere Construction [J].Chinese Public Administration, 290(8), 83-87
    [4] Nannan Dong,Changbiao Zhong. (2009). Research on Developing Recycling Economy to Promote the Coordinated Development of Land Economy and Marine Economy [J].Productivity Research, 17, 95-98
    [5] Xiaoping Wei, Kun Li.(2005). Evolution Game Research of Duplication Dynamics towards Industrial Ecology Linkage’s Building [J].China Industrial Economy, 213(12)
    [6] Kun Li, Jisheng Peng. (2009). Premise of Keystone Enterprise’s Function Based on Measurement of Ecology Niche [J], China Population, Resources and Environment,19(4),129-133
    [7] Zuo Zhiping, Zhang Bo. (2013) Analysis on Operational Pattern and Stability of Cluster Supply Chain Symbiotic Network [J].Ecological Economy,271(9),120-124
    [8] Tudor T, Adam E, Bates M (2007) Drivers and Limitations for the Successful Development and Functioning of EIPs (Eco-industrial Parks): A Literature Review [J]. Ecological Economics, 61, 199-207.
    [9] Desrochers P (2002) Regional Development and Intert Industry Recycling Linkages: Some Historical Perspectives [J].Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 14, 49-65.

The Determinants of Sustainable Development in Laos
Authors :- Hatthachan Phimphanthavong
Keywords :- Sustainability, Economic Growth, Social Development and Environment Conditions.
Published Online :- 28 January 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    This study attempts to determine the importance of sustainable development and aims to propose some indicators and tools that would be used to facilitate a transition towards sustainability. It is assumed that sustainable development is a function of three factors, economic growth, social development and environmental conditions. The results are then combined with certain principles of sustainability, to develop a roadmap for sustainable development in Laos. Annual time series data is used for the period 1990-2010. In order to generate the most appropriate equation for analysis, relevant theoretical and studies are reviewed. This study proves that sustainable development is a fair combination of the three main factors of development, economic growth, social development, and environmental protection, under the condition that economic growth is distributed to all the population, through poverty reduction, minimizing inequality in society, and maintaining a good condition of the environment and natural resources. It is about achieving the economic growth needed to meet human needs, improve living standards, and provide the financial resources that make environmental protection possible.
  • View References

    [1] Brundtland Commission, (1987). Our Common Future. Published by Oxford University Press in 1987, Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brundtland_Commission
    [2] Munasinghe, M. (2001). Sustainable Development and Climate Change: Applying the Sustainomics Transdisciplinary Meta-framework. International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, 01(1), 13–55.
    [3] Phimphanthavong, H. (2012). Economic Reform and Regional Development of Laos. Modern Economy, 03(2), 179-186, doi:10.4236/me.2012.32025, online at http://www.SciRP.org/journal/me
    [4] Khamphan, C.(2007). Lao economic reform and regional cooperation: Lao PDR in ASEAN. A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in international relation, at International University of Japan.
    [5] MDGs. (2010). Tool for Millennium Development Goals Monitoring Lao PDR. Lao Department of statistics, Ministry of Planning and Investment, Vientiane.
    [6] Phimphanthavong,H.(2013). Determinants of Economic Growth in Laos. British Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, 03(1), 35-49. URL: http://www.sciencedomain.org
    [7] Phimphanthavong, H.(2012), The Sustainable Development through Community Participation: Case of Poverty Reduction Fund Project in Laos. Economic Journal, 01 (1), 14-24. URL: http://orientaljournals.org/
    [8] Disano, J. (2001), “Indicators of sustainable development: Guidelines and methodologies,” United Nations publication, ISBN 978-92-1-104577-2, third edition, available at: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/guidelines.pdf
    [9] UNDP (2006), “Poverty-Environment Initiative (PEI) in Laos PDR,” issue brief 2006/2010: Hydropower Investment, available at: http://www.unpei.org/PDF/6%20-%20PEI%20brief%2006_2010_Hydro_final.pdf
    [10] Smith, C. and Rees, G. (1998). Economic Development. 2nd edition, Basingstoke: Macmillan. ISBN 0333722280
    [11] United Nation (1987). Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. General Assemble Resolution 42/187, 11 December 1987. Retrieved: 2013-09-21
    [12] UNDP (2001). National Human Development Report Lao PDR 2001. Vientiane: UNDP Office, Laos.
    [13] David, K. (1996). Sustanable Development: Conventional versus emergency alternative wisdom. United State Congress, New York, USA
    [14] Bo Gao. (2001). The Impacts of Economic Growth on Resources and Environment in Henan Province. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 11(1), 810 – 816.
    [15] Greiner, A. (2010). Economic Growth, Public Debt and Welfare: Comparing three Budgetary Rules. Germany Economic Review, 12 (2), 205-222.
    [16] Limskul, K. and Hoa, T, V. (2013). Economic impact of CO2 emissions on Thailand’s growth and climate change mitigation policy: A modelling analysis. Economic Modelling, 33 (1), 651-658.
    [17] Herman E. D. (1992). Allocation, distribution, and scale: towards an economics that is efficient, just, and sustainable. Ecological Economics, 6(3), 185-193. doi: 10.1016/0921-8009(92)90024-M
    [18] Costanza, R.(2000). Visions of alternative (unpredictable) futures and their use in policy analysis. Conservation Ecology, 4 (5), URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art5
    [19] Costanza, R. (2003). A vision of the future of science: reintegrating the study of humans and the rest of nature. Elsevier Science Ltd, 35(1), 651-671. doi: 10.1016/S0016-3287(02)00105-2, available at: http://www.uvm.edu/giee/pubpdfs/Costanza_2003_Futures.pdf
    [20] Dalgaard, C. J., Hansen, H. and Tarp, F. (2004).”On the empirics of foreign aid and growth. Economic Journal, 114, 191–216.
    [21] Karras, G. (2006). Foreign Aid and Long-Run Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence for a Panel of Developing Countries. Journal of International Development, 18 (7), 15–28.
    [22] Dollar, D. and Kraay, A. (2001). Growth is Good for the Poor. Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, 07 (3), 195-225.
    [23] Anup, S. (2012), “Foreign Aid for Development Assistance”, Social, Political, Economic and Environmental Issues, available at: http://www.globalissues.org/article/35/foreign-aid-developmentassistance
    (accessed on 26 September 2013).
    [24] Kakwani, N., and Pernia, E, M. (2000). What is pro poor growth?. Asian Development Review,16(1),01-16.
    [25] Nourry, M. (2008). Measuring sustainable development: Some empirical evidence for France from eight alternative indicators. Journal of Ecological economics, 67, 441-456. Available at www.sciencedirect.com
    [26] Clarke M., Islam S.M.N., and Sheehan P.J. (2002). Achieving simultaneous economic growth and sustainability-the new impossibility theorem for development economics?. Proceedings of the regional
    symposium on environment and natural resource, Malaysia, Vol. 1, 90-102.
    [27] Islam, S, and Jolley, A. (1996), “Sustainable development in Asia,” Natural Resource Forum, 20(4), 263-79.

Analyzing the Trinomial “Competitiveness-Growth-Social Justice” in the Eurozone
Authors :- Antonio E. Morales-Pita
Keywords :- Competitiveness, growth, internal devaluation, monetary union.
Published Online :- 08 February 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    This paper analyzes the theoretical relationship between the trinomial and the monetary union membership in the context of the Eurozone financial crisis. Since the last four years the sustainability of the Eurozone is intensely discussed in international political economy (IPE) by scholars and non-academic journalists, especially in relation to the effectiveness of austerity to solve the crisis. The author argues that the main cause of the crisis is not the profligacy of some states, but the lack of competitiveness inherent to the necessary implementation of internal devaluation leading to current account (CA) and capital account (KA) imbalances, increasing borrowing from weaker countries, thereby affecting their public budgets, growth and social justice. The conclusion summarizes that the Eurozone sooner or later should collapse due to economic, financial, social and political crises.
  • View References

    [1] Alessandrini, P et all. (2012). External Imbalances and Financial Fragility in the Euro Area. MoFiR working paper N° 66.
    [2] Bootle, R. (2012). How to leave the Eurozone, (Wolfson Economics Prize MMXII). London: Capital Economics.
    [3] Bord, M., James, H. (2013). The European crisis in the context of the history of previous financial crises – working paper 19112. Masssachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research, June.
    [4] Davies, G. (2013). Angela Merkel – lame duck or savior of the euro? Financial Times, September 15.
    [5] Lelkes. O., Gasior, K. (2012). Income Poverty & Social Exclusion in the EU. Vienna: European Center for Social Welfare Policy and Research, January.
    [6] McGiffen, S. (2012). Bloodless Coup D’Etat: The European Union’s response to the Eurozone Crisis. Journal of the Research Group on Socialism and Democracy online, posted on July 29.
    [7] McGiffen, S. (2005). The European Union – A critical guide, London: Pluto Press.
    [8] Panizza, U., Presbitero, A. (2013). Public debt and economic growth in advanced economies: a survey MoFiR working paper No.78, January.
    [9] Pisani-Ferry, J., Sapir, A., and Guntram, W, (2013.) EU-IMF assistance to euro-area countries: an early assessment – Bruegel Blueprint 19. Brussels. June 17.
    [10] Porter, M. (1990). The Competitive Advantage of Nations, New York: the Free Press.
    [11] Rodrik, D. (2007). The inescapable trilemma of the world economy in
    http://rodrik.typepad.com/dani_rodriks_weblog/2007/06/the_inescapable.html, June 27.
    [12] Steen, M. (2013). Complacency over economy biggest danger for German winner. Financial Times. September 22.
    [13] Stockhammer, E. (2011). Peripheral Europe’s debt and German wages. The role of wage policy in the Euro Area, Research on Money and Finance, discussion paper No. 29. March.
    [14] Whirwall, A. (1991). ‘EMU is no cure for problems with the balance of payments’ Financial times,October 9.
    [15] Wolf, M. (2013). A huge structural current account surplus exports products – and bankruptcy. Financial Times, September 24.
    [16] Wolf, M. (2012a). Why the Bundesbank is wrong.Financial Times, April 10.
    [17] Wolf, M. (2012b). Can one have balance of payments crisis in a currency union? Financial Times, February 16.

Perceived Compliance with International Standards on Auditing and Quality of Auditing
Authors :- Kakande Robert Ashe J,Arthur Sserwanga and Baziz Natamba
Keywords :- Auditing, International Standards on Auditing, Perceived Compliance, Quality.
Published Online :- 08 February 2014

  • View Full Abstract

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between perceived compliance with ISAs and quality of auditing in Uganda. A conceptual framework was developed relating perceived compliance with ISAs with quality of auditing using reliability, relevance and degree of accuracy. A cross sectional research design was used to collect data from 103 audit partners of audit firms in Kampala out of a population of 140. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were also used to select 133 respondents from users of audited financial information like banks, micro-finance institutions and Uganda Revenue Authority and 7 respondents from ICPAU. The findings show positive perceptions on compliance with ISAs by audit firms in Uganda, positive perceptions on the quality of auditing in Uganda by both the audit partners and users of audited financial information and a significant positive relationship between perceived compliance with ISAs and quality of auditing in Uganda. From the findings it is clear that ISAs are applicable and it is advisable that audit firms comply with ISAs so as to constantly have quality in audited financial information.
  • View References

    [1] Anthea, R. (2002), ACCA Student Accountant, August 2002, ACCA, London, pp 20-21.
    [2] Bank of Uganda (2000), Annual Report 1999/2000, Kampala.
    [3] Bolkestein, F. (2004), Paper on Harmonisation of International Standards of Reporting, European Commission, London.
    [4] Bombom, I. (1998), Applicability of International Accounting Standards in the Preparation of FS in Uganda, Unpublished.
    [5] Chen, Y.; Jubb, P. & Train, A. (1997), Problems of Accounting Reforms in the Peoples’ Republic of China, International Journal of Accounting 32(2), pp 173-189.
    [6] Cosserat, G; Barry, E & O’Connor, B (1995), Accounting and Audit Practice, 2nd Edition, Martins Publishers, London.
    [7] Crow, J. (2003), Rebuilding Public Confidence in Financial Reporting; An International perspective, IFAC, New York.
    [8] Foulkslynch (2003), Audit and Assurance Services, 2003 Edition, ACCA, London.
    [9] Gosling, P. (2002), ACCA Student Accountant, November/December 2002, London.
    [10] Harding, F. (1998), Corporate Credibility- Why a Harmonised Global Accounting Framework Matters, IFAC, New York.
    [11] IAASB (2004), International Standards on Auditing, IFAC, New York.
    [12] IOSCO (2002), Principles for Auditor Oversight, A Statement of the Technical Committee of the International Organisation of Securities Commissions, IOSCO, London.
    [13] Jamwa, D & Namugenyi, E. (2002), Implications of Enron and Wordcom clients on the Accounting Profession and the Way Forward, Chartered Certified Accountants Society of Uganda. Kampala.
    [14] Karapetrovic, S & Willborn (2000), Quality Audit in Financial Services, International Journal of Auditing 4(1), pp.139-152.
    [15] Kothari, C. (2002), Research Methodology, Methods and Techniques, 2nd Edition, K.K Gupta Publishers, New Delhi.
    [16] Krejcie, R & Morgan, D. (1970), Determining the Sample Size for Research Activities, Education and Psychological Measurement 30: pp. 607-610.
    [17] Luther, R. (1996), The Developments of Accounting Regulations in the Extractive Industries; An International review, International Journal of Accounting 31(1), pp. 150-163.
    [18] Mairo, M. (2003), ACCA Student Accountant November/ December, ACCA, London.
    [19] Maitin, T. (1994), Audit Management, South East Asia Publications. New Delhi.
    [20] Morrisey, J. (2000), International Reporting, The Way Forward, U.S Securities and Exchange Commission. New York.
    [21] Mugyenyi, E. (2003), The Uganda Accountants Newsletter March 2003, 8(1) ICPAU, Kampala, pp. 11-14.
    [22] Nickland, R (2002), Regulation of Auditing, Ernst & Young, London.
    [23] Norbes, C & Parker, R. (1991) Comparative Financial Accounting, Prentice Hall, New York.
    [24] Omondi, V. (2002), The East African Newspaper December 9-15, 2002. Nairobi, pp. 23.
    [25] Parker, R. (1990), Regulating British Corporate Financial Reporting in the Late 19thCentury, Accounting Business and Financial History 1(1), pp. 142-148.
    [26] Ian, P. (1999), Adding Credibility through Assurance Services, IFAC, New York.
    [27] Rene, R. (2002), World Congress of Accountants, IFAC- Articles and Speeches Library, New York.
    [28] Republic Of Uganda (1992), Accountants Statute, Uganda Printing and Publishing Corporation. Entebbe.
    [29] Taylor, P & Turley (1986), The Regulation of Accounting, Oxford Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.
    [30] Tondkar, R., Adhikari & Coffman (1989), An Analysis of the Impact of Selected EEC Directives on Harmonising Listing and Filing Requirements of the EEC Stock Exchange, International Journal of Accounting 25(2), pp. 124-131.
    [31] Tsiguoki, F. (2000), Strengthening Self-Regulation to meet global demands, IFAC, New York.